Chapter 23

 

Human Demography

Demographics of Countries

  • Not all countries have the same birth and death rates
  • Highly developed countries:
    • U.S., Canada, France, Germany, Sweden, Australia, Japan
      • Low rates of population growth
      • Lowest birth rates
      • Low infant mortality rates (# infant deaths/1000 live births)
      • Longer life expectancies
      • Highly industrialized

 

  • Developing countries:
    • Moderately developed
      • Mexico, Turkey, Thailand, most of south America
      • Birth and infant mortality rates higher, but declining
      • Medium level of industrialization
    • Less developed:
      • Bangladesh, Ethiopia
      • Highest birth and infant mortality rates
      • Shortest life expectancy

 

  • _____________________________________
    • Way to express a country’s growth
    • Can identify population growth of a country as high, moderate, or less by the doubling time
  • _____________________________ = replacement level
    • 2.1 children/couple
    • Worldwide the total fertility rate is 2.8

 

Population and Quality of Life

  • Most agree that all people should __________________________________________________
    • Balanced diet, clean water, decent shelter, and adequate clothing
  • It will be increasingly difficult to meet the needs of a rapidly growing world population (7 billion +)
    • 81% of the world population lives in less developed countries
    • Over 100 of these countries will double in population by the year 2050

 

  • Biggest concern?
    • _________________________________________ in the poorest countries
      • Increased demand for food and material goods
    • _________________________________________________________ in these countries and high consumption in developed countries
      • Resource scarcity
  • Several problems associated with population growth

 

World Hunger

  • More than 800 million people ___________________________________________________
    • Over 80 countries are considered low-income and food deficient
    • South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are regions with the greatest food insecurity
    • Condition in which people live with chronic hunger and malnutrition

 

  • Chronic hunger
    • ____________________________________________
      • Greater vulnerability to illness and disease
      • Diarrhea, acute respiratory illness, malaria, and measles
    • Cause of chronic hunger not simply failure of food production
      • Lack of nutrients and minerals
      • Lack of protein (Kwashiorkor – bloated abdomen)
      • Enough food if it were evenly distributed

 

Economic Effects

  • ________________________________________ and ____________________________________ affect each other
    • Degree to which they affect each other is unclear
  • __________________________________________
    • Period marked by a greatly increased birth rate
    • The number of annual births exceeds 2 per 100 women
    • Signify good times and periods of general economic growth and stability

 

Population Stabilization

  • Population stabilization alone will _____________________________________________
    • For most of the developing world, economic development would profit from slower population growth
  • If population growth continues at current predicted levels:
    • Much of the world will experience ______________________________________ and continued poverty

 

Reduce Total Fertility Rate

  • Decrease ____________________________________
    • Reduce total fertility rate (TFR)
  • Culture and Fertility
    • _____________________________
      • Ideas and customs of a group of people
      • Passed from generation to generation
      • Evolves over time
    • Values and norms of society are all part of a society’s culture
      • Exerts a powerful influence over individuals by controlling their behaviors

 

  • Culture and Fertility
    • Why is TFR high?
      • __________________________________
        • Different societies have different gender expectations
        • Couple is expected to have a certain number of children
      • High fertility compensating for high mortality
      • Important ____________________________________________ of children
        • In some societies, children work in family enterprises
      • ________________________________________

 

  • The social and economic _______________________________________
    • _________________________________ exists in many societies
      • Social construct that results in women not having the same rights, opportunities, or privileges as men
        • More women live in poverty
        • Have lower societal status – most important factor of TFR’s
      • Sons more highly valued than daughters
        • More illiterate women in developing countries
        • Fewer women attend secondary school

 

  • Marriage age and fertility
    • TFR affected by average age at which women marry
    • Women who marry are more apt to have children
    • Earlier a woman marries, the more children she is likely to have

 

  • Educational opportunities and fertility
    • Women with ____________________________________________ and have fewer children
    • Education increases the probability that women will know how __________________________________

 

  • Family Planning Services
    • Reduction in fertility won’t become a reality without health and family planning
    • ________________________________________ is strongly linked to lower TFR