Lifeguard Review Test #1



Multiple Choice

Circle the correct answer to the question.

  1. The “F” in the FIND decision-making model stands for—

a.       Features of lifeguarding.

b.      Figure out the problem.

c.       Find the problem.

d.      Focus on lifeguarding.


  1. Good Samaritan laws are designed to protect most professional rescuers from—

a.       The risk of legal action as a result of sharing information about the victim with bystanders and local media.

b.      The risk of legal action as long as they act in good faith, within the scope of their training and are not negligent.

c.       The need to legally document what was seen, heard and done at the scene.

d.      The need to obtain consent before providing care.


  1. Before providing care for a conscious injured or ill victim, you must first

a.       Announce to bystanders what you are going to do.

b.      Begin to write your record of what happened.

c.       Find out if you have a duty to act.

d.      Obtain the victim’s consent.


  1. Which of the following is NOT a responsibility of lifeguards?

a.       Educating patrons about facility rules and regulations.

b.      Ensuring the victim returns to his or her previous state of health.

c.       Minimizing or eliminating hazardous situations or behaviors.

d.      Providing needed care for the victim.


  1. Which of the following personal characteristics should be true of a professional lifeguard?

a.       Eat and hydrate properly only on days when you are working.

b.      Maintain a professional attitude, appearance and healthy lifestyle.

c.       Update certifications within a year after they expire.

d.      Use sun protection and sunglasses only on hot, sunny days.


  1. If a victim of injury or illness refuses care, you should

a.       Continue to provide care as needed.

b.      Explain to the victim why he or she needs care and request the victim to at least allow someone more highly trained, such as EMS personnel, to evaluate the situation.

c.       Interview bystanders and fill out the incident report.

d.      Tell the victim you are trained to help, your level of training and what you think may be wrong.


  1. Negligence includes all of the following EXCEPT

a.       Failing to control or stop any behaviors that could result in further harm or injury.

b.      Failing to provide care.

c.       Providing inappropriate care.

d.      Providing the standard of care.



  1. Match each term with the correct definition.
  1. Abandonment
  2. Confidentiality
  3. Duty to Act
  4. Negligence
  5. Standard of Care


           Legal responsibility to act in an emergency while on the job.

           The victim’s right to privacy, which is protected by not sharing information learned about the victim.

           Guidelines and expectations for professional rescuers, which may be established in part by their training program and in part by state or local authorities.

           A failure to follow the standard of care or failure to act, which results in someone being injured or causes further harm to the victim.

           Leaving the scene of an emergency or ceasing to provide care for a victim who requires ongoing care before someone with equal or greater training arrives and takes over.


Multiple Answers

Place a check next to the correct answer or answers.

  1. To look professional and be prepared to respond appropriately to any situation, a professional lifeguard must—

            Wear the lifeguard uniform when on and off duty.

            Be well groomed.

            Keep rescue equipment locked in the storage room so it is ready for use when on duty.

            Sit or stand upright at the lifeguarding station.

            Keep eyes focused on the assigned area of responsibility at all times.

            Keep essential personal gear, such as sunglasses, away from the lifeguard station while on surveillance duty.

            Observe all facility rules, regulations and policies.

            Eat only when in the lifeguard office or on the lifeguard stand when the area of responsibility is clear of patrons.


  1. Which of the following situations would require obtaining consent from the individual or from a parent or guardian before providing care?

            An unconscious victim of a head injury.

            A person who is conscious with a minor open wound.

            A person who is currently conscious but previously was unconscious, according to his friend.

            A child who is with his parents but is unconscious from an accident.

            A person who can talk and can give information regarding his or her injury or illness.

            An unconscious child at a lakefront who carpooled with another family but whose parents or guardian cannot be located.

            A college student who is confused and was seriously injured during a nonfatal submersion.


True or False

Circle true or false.

  1. True False    The vast majority of states and the District of Columbia have Good

                            Samaritan laws.


  1. True False    Good Samaritan laws protect people who willingly provide emergency care

                            without accepting anything in return.


  1. True False    Good Samaritan laws protect people from legal liability resulting from a

                            victim’s injury if they act in good faith and provide care outside of their

                            level of training.


  1. True False    Good Samaritan laws may not protect a rescuer from legal liability

                            resulting from a victim’s injury if the rescuer stopped providing care and

                            left the scene of the emergency before another rescuer of equal or more

                            advanced training arrived to take over.


  1. True False    Good Samaritan laws protect all lifeguards.


  1. True False    Since accuracy is important in completing your agency’s accident reports,

                            remember to record facts, names and personal opinions and feelings when

                            completing the forms.


  1. True False    To learn what the lifeguard team members should expect from one another,

                            team members must communicate and practice the facility’s EAP



  1. True False    Annual certification training may include CPR and AED review courses,

                            lifeguarding review courses and review of lifeguarding knowledge and



  1. True False    Only lifeguards at seasonal facility need to have annual certification



  1. True False    Seasonal lifeguards can lose knowledge and skills during the off-season.


Fill in the Blanks

  1. The primary responsibility of a lifeguard is to ensure patron safety and protect lives. This can be done in several ways, such as—

a.                           injuries by minimizing or eliminating hazardous situations or behaviors.

b.                          facility rules and regulations and                     patrons about them.

c.       Recognizing and                     quickly and effectively to all emergencies.

d.      Administering                                         and CPR or using an AED in an emergency and, if trained, administering emergency oxygen when needed.

e.       Informing other                    , facility staff and management when more help or equipment is needed.


  1. The lifeguard team will work together better when they understand the expectations of

                    as well as what they can expect from each other.


  1. When using the FIND decision-making model applied to lifeguarding decisions, FIND means—

a.                           out the problem.

b.                          possible solutions.

c.                           the pros and cons for each solution.

d.                          which solution is best.


Circle the Correct Answer from the Pair

  1. Preventive lifeguarding (is/is not) one of the keys to minimizing emergency situations.


  1. You, the first rescuer, arrive on the scene of an injured minor whose parents are present. The 15 year old gives consent for you to treat him or her. You (do/do not) need consent from a parent or guardian of the teenager.


  1. Earning a lifeguarding certification (means/does not mean) someone has learned all there is to know about lifeguarding.


Short Answer

  1. List at least five characteristics of a professional lifeguard.







  1. List at least three reasons that a professional lifeguard must exercise as part of his or her responsibility to the job.





  1. List at least five legal principles involved in emergency care.







  1. Provide two important reasons for documenting an injury or incident.




  1. How can management ensure a good lifeguard team for their facility?




  1. Name three things management can do to support the professional lifeguard.







Review Questions



Multiple Choice

Circle the correct answer to the question.

  1. Signs posted in an aquatic facility are an example of what injury-prevention strategy?

a.       Communication with patrons.

b.      Facility safety checks.

c.       Patron surveillance.

d.      Written hazard standard.


  1. Rules common to the use of facility equipment and play structures include all of the following EXCEPT—

a.       Do not climb on lifeguard stands or towers.

b.      Do not sit or hang on lane lines or lifelines.

c.       Enter, ride and exit the slide head-first.

d.      One person at a time on the diving board.


  1. Which of the following rules are common for diving boards and towers?

a.       Only one bounce allowed on the diving board.

b.      Only one person on the diving board at a time.

c.       Swim immediately to the closest ladder or wall.

d.      All of the above.


  1. Play structure guidelines include—

a.       No climbing on inflatable play structures on or over dry land.

b.      No toys allowed in the water.

c.       Not letting play structure become overcrowded.

d.      Both a and c.


  1. If a patron continues to break facility rules—

a.       You may need a supervisor or manager to resolve the problem, or give a warning that continued behavior will result in the patron being asked to leave.

b.      You must immediately call the police.

c.       You should allow them to get hurt, they would not listen anyway.

d.      You should immediately have them removed from the facility.


  1. Safety checks should be conducted—

a.       Before opening and after closing the facility.

b.      Before opening the facility and during operations.

c.       Before opening the facility, during daily operations and at closing.

d.      Several times a day when you are not on surveillance duty.


  1. When performing patron surveillance at an outdoor aquatic facility, a lifeguard should clear everyone from the water—

a.       At the first sound of thunder or sighting of lightning.

b.      Upon hearing a thunderstorm warning for the area on the NOAA Weather Radio All Hazards network.

c.       When less than 5 seconds lapse between hearing thunder and seeing lightning.

d.      When thunderhead clouds are seen overhead.


  1. According to the National Lightning Safety Institute, lifeguards may reopen the pool to patrons following severe weather—

a.       30 minutes after the last rainstorm.

b.      30 minutes after the last sound of thunder or last sighting of lightning.

c.       After a NOAA Weather Radio All Hazards network thunderstorm warning expires.

d.      As soon as the sun is shining again.


Multiple Answers

  1. For each of the hazards at a waterfront facility, place a “U” by those that are underwater hazards, a “P” by those that are caused by pier formations and a “C” by those that are caused by a change in water conditions.

            Holes in the swimming area


            Unanchored floating rafts

            Unregulated fishing areas

            Submerged objects

            Tidal changes


            Marine life


  1. Examples of life-threatening conditions include—


            Nonfatal submersion.

            Broken finger.

            Injuries to the head, neck or back.


            Laceration to the cheek.

            Sprained ankle.

            Heart attack.

            Severe bleeding.

            No breathing.

            Broken tooth.


  1. You are lifeguarding at a multi-attraction aquatic facility that has a permanent slide. You must be aware of the following guidelines—

            Enforce age, height and weight guidelines.

            Only allow two riders on the slide at a time.

            Enter, ride and exit the slide head-first only.

            Keep hands inside the slide.

            No standing or stopping.

            Keep slide entry and exit points clear.


  1. The Hazard Communication Standard has rules about hazardous chemicals to prevent injury and illness caused by an exposure. According to the standard, employees have a right to know—

            What chemicals a facility should purchase.

            Which hazardous chemicals are in the facility.

            How to identify chemical hazards at the employee’s facility.

            Which chemicals employees may not have to handle.

            What to do if they or others are exposed to such hazards.


  1. Place “WP” in front of those rules or regulations common to a waterpark and “WF” in front of those rules or regulations common to a waterfront.

            No playing or swimming under piers.

            No personal watercraft in swim areas.

            Patron height restrictions.

            No swimsuits with metal rivets, buttons or fasteners.

            No stacking of tubes.

            No fishing near swimming areas.


True or False

Circle true or false.

  1. True False    A drowning happens when a person suffocates in the water.


  1. True False    People with heart disease, diabetes, high or low blood pressure, seizures,

                            epilepsy or other medical conditions should not be allowed to use the spa

                            or hot tub.


  1. True False    A facility with play structures is just like any other facility and no

                            additional precautions are needed.


  1. True False    Nonswimmers or weak swimmers may become careless during the

                            excitement of using play structures.


  1. True False    Swimmers can be surprised by the fall from a drop slide or rope swing.


  1. True False    If a patron is visiting a facility for the first time, lifeguards should be

                            willing to give the person a break if he or she does not follow a rule.


  1. True False    Safety checks are the responsibility of the lifeguard on surveillance duty.


  1. True False    Weather affects the safety of swimmers both indoors and outdoors.


  1. True False    Management is required to provide lifeguards and other employees with

                            information and training about the chemicals stored and used at their

                            workplace, if their jobs involve handling such items.


  1. True False    The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) must be kept in a location that is

                            only known to the lifeguard supervisor.


  1. True False    A lifeguard who follows the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard

                            eliminates the risk of disease spreading from one person to another from

                            bloodborne pathogens.


Fill in the Blanks

  1. The two most serious aquatic emergencies to prevent are                     and                    ,

                   and                     injuries.


  1. Excited children may run, fall and be injured around sprays and fountains in



  1.                     checks are the primary method of facility surveillance.


  1. Three general categories of hazards at a waterfront facility are—

a.                           hazards.

b.                          formations.

c.       Changing                     conditions.


  1. After clearing the pool due to severe weather, the National Lightning Safety Institute recommends lifeguards wait                     minutes from the last sound of thunder or last sighting of lightning before letting patrons back into the water.


  1. Management has an obligation to protect lifeguards as well as patrons. One major responsibility management should address is                     or dangerous conditions.


  1. Management must maintain                     on the facility and its employees.


  1. Federal regulations are written and enforced to protect people from chemical


                    in and around a facility.


  1. After an emergency, management is generally responsible for—

a.       Closing and reopening the                    .

b.      Interacting with the                    .

c.                           procedures.

d.      Helping                     with problems related to the incident.

e.       Reviewing the incident and addressing any needed                     in operations or in the facility’s                    .



Place the following in the correct order.

  1. Place in order the steps used by a lifeguard to educate patrons about inappropriate behavior.

           Explain a safe alternative behavior or activity.

           Explain the hazard or danger.

           Get the patron’s attention.


Circle the Correct Answer from the Pair

  1. A tornado (warning/watch) means that a tornado has been sighted and that everyone should take shelter immediately.


Short Answer

  1. List at least six rules which should be posted in writing at almost any aquatic facility.










  1. Lifeguards are more effective at their jobs if they understand how accidents and injuries occur. List three ways this understanding may help lifeguards prevent injuries.





  1. Why is it important that a lifeguard enforce rules at his or her aquatic facility?




  1. Give at least two reasons a patron may break rules at an aquatic facility.





  1. List at least four general areas and equipment to inspect that may be on a facility safety check list.







  1. List at least five weather conditions that a lifeguard should be alert to while working at an outdoor facility.










  1. What is the most common problem facing lifeguards on surveillance duty at an outdoor aquatic facility when heavy rain or high winds occur?



  1. What is one important reason lifeguards at an indoor facility should be aware of approaching severe weather?



  1. List at least three responsibilities that a lifeguard should expect from management regarding safety.






  1. List at least three reasons why management would require lifeguards to maintain a variety of records and reports.





Review Questions



Multiple Choice

Circle the correct answer to the question.

  1. When a person’s inner core temperature rises above its normal temperature of 98.6° to a temperature of 102.6°F or higher, the person is suffering from—

a.       A cold-related illness.

b.      A heat-related illness.

c.       Seizure.

d.      Thermocline.


  1. The guidelines for effective scanning include all of the following EXCEPT—

a.       Scan above and below the surface of the water, and include the bottom of the pool in the scan.

b.      Scan for potential problems, particularly arm and leg action, body position and movement through the water.

c.       Scan the patrons in the assigned area of responsibility.

d.      Spend more time and attention on patrons who are good swimmers, since they tend to have problems quickly but quietly.


  1. If a lifeguard is asked a question during patron surveillance, he or she should—

a.       Ignore the patron.

b.      Quickly explain that you cannot look at the patron while talking, but you are still listening.

c.       Refuse to answer the patron’s question, telling him or her to wait until you are on break.

d.      Stop scanning, answer the question in less than 30 seconds and then return to surveillance duty.


  1. What are the three types of coverage for a lifeguard’s area of responsibility involved in patron surveillance?

a.       Area coverage, overlap coverage and total coverage

b.      Total coverage, back-up coverage and area coverage

c.       Total coverage, back-up coverage and zone coverage

d.      Zone coverage, area coverage and overlap coverage



  1. Match each term with the correct definition.
  1. Active drowning victim
  2. Distressed swimmer
  3. Passive drowning victim
  4. Swimmer


            The person makes little or no forward progress in the water. The person might float, scull or tread water. Depending on the means of support, the body position might be horizontal, vertical or diagonal. The face is usually out of the water and he or she can call for help.

            In most cases the person’s arms and legs work in a coordinated and effective way. The body position is nearly horizontal, and there is some breath control. The person is able to make recognizable progress through the water.

            The person might float face-down, at or near the surface, or might sink to the bottom.

            The person struggles to keep the face above water in an effort to breathe. The arms are extended to the side, pressing down for support. The body position is vertical with no supporting kick. The person might continue to struggle underwater.


  1. Match each term with the correct definition.
  1. Elevated stations
  2. Ground-level stations
  3. Rescue water craft


            These stations offer a limited view of the entire swimming area since patrons might be hidden from view by play structures or other patrons. The primary purpose of this type of station is to be close to patrons.

            These stations usually provide the most effective position for patron surveillance because they offer an excellent place for scanning the area of responsibility. This type of station often provides a much better view of patron activities than other positions and is particularly important at a single lifeguard facility.

            These stations typically patrol the outer edge of a swimming area. Often, someone in trouble in the water can be reached quicker from this type of station than from other types of stations.


Multiple Answers

Place a check next to the correct answer or answers.

  1. Four elements of effective surveillance include—

            Area of responsibility.

            Communication strategies.

            Effective scanning.

            Facility safety checks.

            Victim recognition.

            Lifeguard stations.

            Aquatic injury-prevention strategies.


True or False

Circle true or false.

  1. True False    A lifeguard’s primary tool to ensure patron safety and protect lives is

                            patron surveillance.


  1. True False    Making a decision that a patron is in trouble in the water must be based on

                            his or her behavior in the water, age and physical characteristics.


  1. True False    An intoxicated person can always sober up by going swimming.


  1. True False    Scan crowded areas carefully. Partially hidden arm movements might

                            indicate that a victim is actively drowning.


  1. True False    Lifeguards should stand up when waves are present during patron

                            surveillance at a wave pool.


Fill in the Blanks

  1. Lifeguards will spend most of their time on patron                    .


  1. Lifeguards should consider anyone who is submerged or floating face-down and motionless for                     seconds to be a passive drowning victim.


  1. An active drowning victim usually stays at the                     for only 20 to 60 seconds.


  1. During                    , body temperatures drop below 95°F.


  1. Various factors can affect a lifeguard’s scanning technique. Lifeguards need to make adjustments for—

a.                           of responsibility.

b.      The type and                     of the lifeguard station.

c.       The variety of patron                     in the area being scanned.

d.      The                     of patrons in the area of responsibility.

e.                          .


  1. In                     coverage, the swimming area is divided into separate areas of responsibility for each lifeguard station.


  1. The RID factor is summarized as—

a.       The failure of the lifeguard to                     the instinctive drowning response.

b.      The                     of secondary duties on the lifeguard’s primary responsibility of patron surveillance.

c.                           from surveillance duties.


  1. Some waterparks have pools that produce                     of various heights, intervals and patterns.



Place the following in the correct order.

  1. Place in sequence the four steps necessary to relieve a lifeguard at an elevated station, where Lifeguard 1 is the lifeguard currently on surveillance duty and Lifeguard 2 is the relieving lifeguard.

            Once on the deck, Lifeguard 1 takes a position next to the stand and resumes his or her surveillance of the area. On a signal, Lifeguard 2 climbs up in the stand and begins scanning.

            Lifeguard 2 signals or tells Lifeguard 1 that he or she can leave.

            Lifeguard 2 asks Lifeguard 1 whether any patrons in the area of responsibility need closer than normal supervision.

            Lifeguard 2 takes a position next to the stand and begins scanning the area of responsibility. After a few moments of scanning, Lifeguard 2 signals for Lifeguard 1 to climb down.


Circle the correct answer from the pair

  1. Splashing water on a person’s face or immersing a person in water (will/will not) reduce the amount of alcohol in the bloodstream and reduce the effects of alcohol.


  1. During patron surveillance, lifeguards (should/should not) wait for other lifeguards to indicate someone is drowning.


  1. Lifeguards (should/should not) take a break from surveillance duty at least once an hour.


  1. When conducting patron surveillance at a wave pool, lifeguards (should/should not) rotate quickly when waves are present.


  1. At a facility where a buddy system is used, when a buddy is missing or in trouble, notifying the lifeguard (is/is not) the first safeguard provided by the buddy system.


  1. Buddy checks (are/are not) a replacement for effective patron surveillance.


Short Answer

  1. What is a lifeguard’s primary responsibility?



  1. What four elements of patron behavior will a lifeguard analyze to determine the difference between a distressed swimmer and a drowning victim?






  1. A passive drowning can result from a variety of conditions that can lead to a loss of consciousness. List at least four possible conditions.






  1. List three ways alcohol can affect a person in the water and lead to drowning or injury.





  1.  Water craft must be properly equipped when used as a lifeguard station. List at least five pieces of equipment or items necessary to equip water craft for use by lifeguards.







  1. At a facility with play structures, effective surveillance depends upon several factors. List at least four effective surveillance factors specific to play structures.






  1. List three general principles that lifeguards should follow when performing patron surveillance at a waterpark.






  1. List at least two injuries which could occur at a facility with water slides.




  1. List at least three injury-prevention strategies that should be implemented by camps operating waterfront or swimming pool facilities.





  1. List at least two locations or activities that may require special considerations for patron surveillance.






Review Questions



Multiple Choice

Circle the correct answer to the question.

  1. The aquatic safety team includes all of the following EXCEPT—

a.       Concessions staff.

b.      Hospital staff.

c.       Lifeguards.

d.      Swimming instructors.


  1. What important information should be posted on or near all telephones in your aquatic facility?

a.       Emergency numbers

b.      Hours of operation

c.       Staff work schedule

d.      Facility course schedule


  1. Controlling bystanders during an emergency is a responsibility of a lifeguard or other member of the aquatic safety team. Controlling bystanders might involve—

a.       Only assigning one lifeguard or aquatic safety team member to manage bystanders.

b.      Keeping bystanders and any children away from the water’s edge if the facility is cleared.

c.       Repeating your commands and requests only if the crowd asks for an explanation.

d.      Using a firm voice to yell to the patrons to stay back.


Multiple Answers

Place a check next to the correct answer or answers.

  1. Responsibilities of the aquatic safety team members during an emergency may include—

            Stocking the first aid kit.

            Summoning EMS personnel.

            Performing or assisting with a rescue.

            Taking head counts.

            Providing back-up coverage.

            Running a lifeguard challenge.

            Controlling bystanders.

            Clearing the pool or facility.

            Scheduling staff.


True or False

Circle true or false.

  1. True False     With guidance, bystanders can help during an emergency.


  1. True False      An EAP does not state who gets the equipment and how to get it to the

                            injured victim because that is practiced during in-service training.


  1. True False      The EAP at a rural waterfront should factor in a longer response time

                            than an aquatic facility in the middle of a city.


  1. True False      After a victim has received care and has been released to EMS personnel,

                            lifeguards and other members of the safety team still have several tasks to



  1. True False      The decision to reopen a facility following a significant incident may

                            depend upon whether enough lifeguards are ready to go back to

                            surveillance duty.


  1. True False      A lifeguard may not recognize that he or she is suffering from critical

                            incident stress following a significant incident.


  1. True False      Following a significant incident, only lifeguards actually involved in the

                            incident, management or a designated spokesperson should talk to the

                            media or others about the incident.


Fill in the Blanks

  1. The goals of a staff debriefing are to—

a.                           what happened.

b.      Assess the effectiveness of the                    .

c.       Consider new ways to                     similar incidents in the future.

d.      Be alert for                                                             reactions.


  1. A critical incident may cause a strong                     reaction and hurt one’s ability to

                   and function during and after the incident.



Place the following in the correct order.

  1. Place the ten steps of an EAP in the correct order.

            Witnesses are interviewed.

            The lifeguard follows the general procedures for emergencies that occur in the water or on land.

            Corrective action taken.

            The chain of command is notified.

            Equipment is checked.

            The lifeguard recognizes that someone needs immediate help.

            Safety team members assist in the emergency.

            The lifeguard activates the EAP.

            Follow-up staff discussion.

            Reports are completed.


Circle the Correct Answer from the Pair

  1. If EMS personnel take the victim to the hospital on the facility’s only backboard, the facility (may/may not) be reopened.


Short Answer

  1. What is an EAP?



  1. You are a lifeguard on surveillance duty at a waterpark. List three emergency preparation steps to consider in an EAP for waterparks.





  1. List at least five common signals used to communicate during an emergency.







  1. Following an emergency at your facility, after the victim has received care and has been released to EMS personnel, list at least four tasks you need to complete.






  1. List four situations that are considered critical incidents and may lead to health problems for lifeguards.