Notes Chapter 5 Section 1: The Study of Consciousness
For many years scientists and psychologists found the study of human consciousness was pointless because consciousness cannot be directly observed, weighed, or measured. (Remember psychologists prefer to deal with observable behaviors.)
- Now many psychologists believe that we cannot capture the richness of human experience without talking about consciousness.
- Consciousness: Awareness of oneself and one’s environment
- For many years scientists and psychologists found the study of human consciousness was pointless because consciousness cannot be directly observed, weighed, or measured. (Remember psychologists prefer to deal with observable behaviors.)
Consciousness as a Construct
- Today many psychologists believe that consciousness can be linked with measurable behaviors such as talking and brain waves.
Review: Psychological Construct – Allows people to discuss something that cannot be seen, touched, or measured directly.
- Consciousness is a psychological construct because it cannot be seen, touched, or measured directly.
Consciousness is known by its effects on behavior and does play a role in psychological theories.
- For example, we can theorize as to how sleep or alcohol affects consciousness and devise ways of testing our theories.
Meanings of Consciousness
- Remember consciousness is basically awareness.
There are different types of awareness:
- Sensory awareness
- Inner awareness
- Sense of self
Consciousness as Sensory Awareness
- Picture – raindrops on a leaf (use Disney pix)
- Smell – spray some perfume
- Listening – teachers voice.
- You were conscious of all the sensations around you. (The sights, the sounds, the smells)
- Review – Your senses make it possible for you to be aware of your environment.
- Consciousness of Sensory Awareness: Sensory awareness of then environment. We are conscious of things outside ourselves.
Selective Attention: The focusing of attention on a particular stimulus.
- It makes our senses keener (better).
We tend to be more conscious of some things over others.
- We tend to be more conscious of sudden changes, like a cool breeze entering a hot room.
- We tend to be more conscious of unusual stimuli, like if a dog were to walk into the classroom.
- We tend to be more conscious of intense stimuli, like bright colors, loud noises, or sharp pains.
Consciousness as Direct Inner Awareness
Try this: Imagine jumping into a lake or swimming pool on a hot day. Can you feel the cool, refreshing water all around you?
- Although this image may be vivid, you did not really experience it and no sensory organs were involved, yet you are conscious of the image through direct inner awareness.
- Consciousness as Direct Inner Awareness: Being aware of things inside yourself.
You do not hear, see, smell, or touch thoughts, images, emotions, or memories, yet you are still conscious of them.
- Remembering a feeling you had, such as anger.
- Remembering a friend you had in elementary school.
- Abstract concepts like fairness and love.
- Try this: Imagine jumping into a lake or swimming pool on a hot day. Can you feel the cool, refreshing water all around you?
Consciousness as a Sense of Self
Do you know any kids who talk in the third person?
- (Kids who say things like “Timmy wants milk” instead of “I want milk”)
- As kids grow older they being to understand they are unique individuals separate from other people and their surroundings. Once they do, they develop a sense of self.
- Consciousness as a Sense of Self: We are aware of ourselves and our existence.
- Do you know any kids who talk in the third person?
Levels of Consciousness
- So far we have only look at the level of consciousness where people are aware of something and are aware of their awareness. (Try saying that three times fast). Now we will look at other levels of consciousness.
The Preconscious Level
In your notes jot down the answers to the following questions:
- What did you eat for dinner last night?
- What class do you have 2nd hour?
- What is your bus number?
Although you were probably not consciously thinking about those things before you were asked about it, most of you were probably able to come up with answers.
- This is due to our level of consciousness known as preconscious.
- In your notes jot down the answers to the following questions:
- Preconscious: ideas that are not in your awareness now, but you could recall if you had to.
- You can make preconscious bits of information conscious by simply directing your attention to them.
The Unconscious Level
- Unconscious: An area of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories of which we are unaware but which influences our behavior.
Imagine you are getting ready to go to a party, however without realizing it you find yourself distracting from getting ready. You:
- Have trouble finding a pair of shoes.
- Become involved in a long phone call.
- Start playing a video game.
What information do you think was stored in your unconscious?
It may be that you did not want to go to the party.
- According to Sigmund Freud you were unaware of this, it was part of your unconscious.
- It may be that you did not want to go to the party.
- Imagine you are getting ready to go to a party, however without realizing it you find yourself distracting from getting ready. You:
Freud believed that certain memories are painful and some of our impulses (like aggressiveness) are considered unacceptable.
- He believed that we use various mental strategies, called defense mechanisms, to push painful or unacceptable ideas out of our consciousness to protect ourselves from feelings of anxiety, guilt, and shame.
The Nonconscious Level
- Nonconscious: descriptive of bodily processes of which we are not aware.
- We cannot feel our hair or fingernails growing.
- We know we are breathing, but we cannot feel the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen
- Levels of Consciousness
Altered States of Consciousness
Altered States of Consciousness: A type of consciousness other than normal waking consciousness.
- Here a person’s sense of self or sense of the world changes.
- Drug abuse
- Altered States of Consciousness: A type of consciousness other than normal waking consciousness.
Chapter 5 Section 2: Sleep and Dreams
- We spend 1/3 of our life asleep.
Much of how people, animals, and even plants function is controlled by our circadian rhythms.
- Circadian – comes from the Greek word circa which means “about” and the word dies which means "a day”
Circadian Rhythm: a regular sequence of biological processes that occur every 24 hours.
- Our biological clock
The circadian rhythms in humans include a sequence of bodily changes, such as those in:
- Body temperature
- Blood pressure
Remember this happens every 24 hours.
Examples of circadian rhythms at work:
- Our body temperature falls to its lowest point between 3am and 5am every day.
The most studied circadian rhythm is the sleep-wake cycle.
Because most people normally associate periods of wakefulness and sleep with the rotation of the earth, a full sleep-wake cycle is 24 hours.
However, when people are removed from cues that signal day or night (clocks, TV shows, sunrises, sunsets, etc.) their cycle can actually be 25 hours.
- Researchers are unsure why this happens.
- However, when people are removed from cues that signal day or night (clocks, TV shows, sunrises, sunsets, etc.) their cycle can actually be 25 hours.
- Because most people normally associate periods of wakefulness and sleep with the rotation of the earth, a full sleep-wake cycle is 24 hours.
The Stages of Sleep
- Sleep researchers have discovered we sleep in stages.
- These stages are defined in terms of brain-wave patterns, which can be measured by an electroencephalograph (EEG).
- Brain waves vary on the basis on whether we are awake, relaxed, or sleeping.
There are four different brain-wave patterns we will look at:
- Beta Waves
- Alpha Waves
- Theta Waves
- Delta Waves
Beta Waves Awake/Alert
- Short quick waves
- Our brain emits these when we are awake and alert
Alpha Waves: Relaxed/Drowsy
- Slower than beta waves
- Our brain emits these when we are relaxed or drowsy.
- During this relaxed state, we may experience visual images such as flashes of color or sensations such as the feeling we are falling.
Theta Waves: Stage 1 of sleep
- Slower than alpha waves.
- The transition from alpha to theta waves may be accompanied by brief dreamlike images.
Delta Waves: Stages 3 and 4 of sleep
- Slowest waves.
- Deepest sleep.
Stages of sleep
- There are 4 stages and REM sleep.
- Lightest sleep
- Theta waves are produced.
- Brief dreamlike images
- Because it is a light stage of sleep, if we are awakened during this stage, we will probably recall the dreamlike images, and it will feel like we haven’t slept at all.
- If we are not awakened, we remain in stage one of sleep for 30 – 40 minutes.
Stages 2 – 4
- During stages 3 and 4 sleep is deep.
- Delta waves are produced.
- Stage 4 is the deepest sleep, meaning it is the one during which someone would have the greatest difficulty waking up.
After we reach stage 4 of sleep we will stay there for about ½ an hour and then travel back to stage 3, then stage 2, and even stage 1.
- About 90 minutes have passes since we fell asleep.
The final stage of sleep –REM
Rapid-eye movement sleep: a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movement and linked to dreaming.
During REM sleep our eyes are actually moving rapidly.
- In stages 1 – 4 of sleep there is NREM (non-rapid-eye movement)
- During REM sleep we may breath irregularly, our blood pressure rises, and our heart beats faster.
- Brain waves look similar to theta waves.
- During REM sleep our eyes are actually moving rapidly.
- Rapid-eye movement sleep: a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movement and linked to dreaming.
- During a typical eight-hour night of sleep, most people go through the stages about five times. As the night goes on, periods of REM sleep become longer.
Why Do We Sleep?
- People need sleep to help revive the tired body and to help build up resistance to infection.
- Sleep also seems to serve important psychological functions like helping us recover from stress.
What would happen if people forced themselves to go without sleep?
- See what students have to say
In 1964, Randy Gardner, age 17, tried to find out what would happen if he went without sleep.
Under the supervision of a physician, Randy stayed awake almost 11 days.
- He became irritable, could not focus his eyes, and had speech difficulties and memory lapses.
- After the study, he was observed by William Dement, and early sleep researcher.
- He found that Gardner slept and extra 6.5 hours for the first 3 days following the experiment. On the 4th night he slept and extra 2.5 hours.
- Under the supervision of a physician, Randy stayed awake almost 11 days.
In some studies, animals or people have been deprived only of REM sleep.
- When this happens subjects went into REM rebound, where they catch up on their REM sleep by having more of it when they sleep later on.
- Those deprived of REM tend to learn more slowly and forget more easily what they have learned.
REM sleep seems to be quite important.
- Research has shown that REM sleep may help brain development in infants and “exercise” brain cells in adults.
- We dream the most during REM sleep
- Dreams are a mystery that many have pondered for a very long time.
- Did you know that dreams could be in black and white or full color?
- Some dreams also seem more realistic then others, while others are disorganized and seem less real.
We may dream every time we are in REM sleep.
- During REM sleep, dreams are most likely to have clear imagery and plots that make sense.
- During NREM sleep, plots are vaguer and images are more fleeting.
We dream in real time
- If the events in a dream last about 10 minutes, we were probably sleeping for 10 minutes.
- Dreams can involve crazy adventures, but most dreams are extensions of activities from our day, where the characters in the dreams are friends, family, and other people we interact with on a daily basis.
The Freudian View – Is a dream a wish your heart makes?
- Sigmund Freud believed that dreams reflect a person’s unconscious wishes and urges.
- Freud thought that unconscious wishes that were particularly unacceptable or painful were the ones most likely to appear in dreams in some form.
- Freud believed people dreamed in symbols.
- He thought that these symbolic dreams give people a way to deal with painful material that they cannot deal with consciously.
The Biopsycholgoical approach
- Psychologists following this approach, believe that dreams are more biological then psychological.
- According to this view, during sleep, neurons fire, in a part of the brain that controls movement and vision. These neuron bursts are random and the brain tries to make sense of them by weaving a story – a dream.
- This approach suggests an explanation for why people tend to dream about events that took place earlier in the day, the most current activity of the brain concerns the events or problems of the day. The brain uses everyday matters to give structure to the random bursts of neurons during REM sleep.
- Even when we sleep, we may have trouble getting to sleep or sleeping soundly.
- When these troubles last for long periods of time, or become serious, they are considered to be sleep problems.
- Nightmares and Night Terrors
- Sleep Walking
- Sleep Apnea
- Insomnia: A sleep disorder characterized by recurring problems in falling asleep or staying asleep.
The word Insomnia comes from the Latin in meaning “not” and somnus meaning “sleep”
- So it literally means – not sleep
- The most common type of insomnia is difficulty falling asleep.
- People with insomnia are more likely than others to worry and have “racing minds” at bedtime.
- For many people insomnia comes and goes, but it usually increases during periods of anxiety or tension and decreases during less stressful times.
People can actually make insomnia worse by trying to get to sleep.
- This method usually backfires because it increases tension.
- We cannot force ourselves to fall asleep.
Psychologists with insomnia have seen the most success with the following techniques:
Tense the muscles, one at a time, then let the tension go.
- This helps to relax the body.
Avoid worrying in bed.
- If worrying persists get up for a while.
- Establish a regular routine for getting up and going to sleep each day.
- Use pleasant images or daydreams to relax.
- Tense the muscles, one at a time, then let the tension go.
- Insomnia is fairly common. It is really only a problem if it continues for long periods of time.
Nightmares and Night Terrors
Nightmares are quite common.
- In the Middle Ages, nightmares were thought to be the works of demons who were sent to make people pay for their sins.
- Today we know that nightmares are generally products of REM sleep, and usually happen during morning hours of sleep.
- The average person experiences about 2 nightmares each month.
- Upsetting events can produces nightmares (like a fire or earth quake)
- People who are anxious or depressed are also more likely to have nightmares.
Night terrors: A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and apparent terror.
- They are seldom remembered.
- They are more severe than nightmares.
- Dreamers who experience night terrors feel their hearts racing and they may even gasp for air. They may suddenly sit up, talk incoherently, or thrash about. They do not fully wake up, but in the morning they may recall a vague feeling or image from the night terror.
- Night terrors occurring during stages 3 or 4 of the sleep cycle, and occur during the first couple sleep cycles.
- Night terrors are most common among young children and may reflect immaturity of the nervous system.
- Nightmares are quite common.
- Many children walk in their sleep.
- Sleepwalkers generally roam around during the deeper stages of sleep.
- Sleepwalkers may respond to questions when they are sleepwalking, but may not remember what they did or said.
- Because sleepwalkers are not fully conscious they should be supervised so they don’t hurt themselves.
- It is okay to wake up a sleepwalker if they are in danger of hurting themselves, but if not it is best to just let them sleep.
- Most children outgrow sleepwalking as they grow up.
- As with the night terrors sleepwalking is probably due to an immature nervous system.
- Sleep Apnea: A sleep disorder in which breathing is interrupted.
- Sleep apneas occur when a person’s air passages are blocked, so they often snore.
- Some people with sleep apnea do not automatically start breathing again until they sit up and gasp for air.
- Once they begin breathing again, they fall back asleep.
- Most people with sleep apnea do not wake up completely, so they may not be aware of their condition, but they often feel tired during the day.
- Sleep apnea can be treated by a special nasal mask that provides stead air flow and prevents breathing interruptions.
About 10 million American have sleep apnea and it is associated with obesity and snoring.
- This is more than a sleep problem.
- It can lead to high blood pressure, heart attacks, and strokes.
Narcolepsy: An uncommon sleep disorder characterized by brief attacks of REM sleep.
- People with narcolepsy can fall asleep no matter what time it is or where they are.
- When a person with narcolepsy wakes up they usually feel refreshed, but these episodes can be dangerous.
- No one know for sure what causes narcolepsy, but it is believed to be a genetic disorder of REM-sleep functioning.
- Drug therapy and frequent naps have been used to treat narcolepsy.
- Narcolepsy: An uncommon sleep disorder characterized by brief attacks of REM sleep.
- Examples of circadian rhythms at work:
Notes Chapter 5 Section 3: Meditation, Biofeedback, and Hypnosis
- People who are asleep and dreaming are in an altered state of consciousness.
Other altered states of consciousness occur when we are awake:
Meditation: Narrowing Consciousness
- Meditation: A systematic narrowing of attention that slows the metabolism and helps produce feelings of relaxation.
- Meditation allows some people to narrow their consciousness so that the stresses of the outside world fade away.
Meditation requires one to focus on a peaceful repetitive stimulus.
Numerous techniques have been used to accomplish this.
- Staring at an oil burning lamp.
- Staring at an intricate pattern on a vase or carpet.
Repeating pleasing sounds called “mantras” to mentally focus on a sound.
- They may say something like “om” or “sheereem”
- Numerous techniques have been used to accomplish this.
Focus on a repetitive stimulus helps people narrow their consciousness and become relaxed.
- By narrowing one’s conscious, people can suspend planning, worrying, and other concerns.
- Meditation is an important pat of some religions, such as Buddhism.
Some Meditators claim that meditation allows them to achieve “oneness with the universe,” pleasure, or some great insight.
- These claims have never been scientifically proven, but evidence does suggest that meditation can help people relax.
- Studies have also shown that meditation can help lower high blood pressure.
Biofeedback: Feeding Back Information
- Biofeedback: A system for monitoring and feeding back information about certain biological processes.
- Through biofeedback training, people have learned to control certain bodily functions, such as heart rate.
- Some people have used biofeedback to learn to create brain waves produced when relaxing (alpha waves) as a way of coping with tension
People often use a biofeedback system to train themselves to control certain body processes
For example: Tension headaches
- A person who suffers from tension headaches could be hooked up to a biofeedback system with a screen that shows when they are tensing their forehead muscles.
- As the forehead muscles relax, the line on the screen levels off.
- The patient’s task is to keep the line as level as possible – the patient needs to keep his or her forehead muscles relaxed.
- For example: Tension headaches
Hypnosis: Myths and Realities
- Hypnosis: A condition in which people appear to be highly suggestible and to behave as if they are in a trance
What is hypnosis?
- The word hypnosis derived from the Greek hypnos which means “sleep”
- Some psychologists believe that hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness during which people respond to suggestions and behave as though they are in a trance.
- Other psychologists argue that hypnosis is not an altered state of consciousness because studies have shown that some of the same effects achieved by hypnosis can also occur without hypnosis.
- Hypnosis began with the ideas of Franz Mesmer in the late 1700s
- Mesmer thought that the universe was connected by forms of magnetism.
- To cure his patients he would pass magnets over their bodies.
- Some of his patients would fall into a trance and awaken feeling better.
- Eventually scientists decided that Mesmer’s so-called “cures” had little scientific basis.
Today hypnosis may be viewed in a variety of ways:
- Some doctors used hypnosis in addition to, or instead of anesthetic in certain types of surgery
- Some psychologists use hypnosis to help clients reduce anxiety, manage pain, or overcome fears.
- There is still a great deal we do not know about hypnosis.
- Hypnosis should always be left in the hands of professionals. DO NOT ATTEMPT HYPNOTISM ON YOUR OWN.
How is Hypnosis Achieved?
- Professional hypnotist may put people in a state of consciousness called a “hypnotic trance” by asking them to focus on something specific – a spot on the wall, an object held by the hypnotist, or even the hypnotist’s voice.
Hypnotists usually suggest that peoples arms and legs are becoming warm, heavy, and relaxed.
- They may also tell people they are becoming sleepy or are falling asleep.
Hypnosis is not sleep.
- People who are sleeping have very different brain waves from people in trances.
- Hearing the word sleep seems to help a person enter a hypnotic trance.
People who are easily hypnotized are said to have hypnotic suggestibility.
- They can focus on the instructions of the hypnotist without getting distracted.
- Suggestible people also like the idea of being hypnotized and are not resistant to it.
- People with vivid imaginations are especially suggestible.
- People can only be hypnotized if they want to be.
Can you be hypnotized?
- Put your hands out in front of you and close your eyes.
- Relax a bit.
Imagine that in your right hand you have a bucket.
- Imagine that someone has started to pour water into your bucket.
- At first they only put a little water so the bucket isn’t too heavy.
- However they start pouring more and more water in the bucket and it is getting to be quite heavy.
- It is getting so heavy in fact that you are having trouble holding it.
Now imagine that in your left hand is a balloon.
- The balloon is full of helium.
- The balloon is so light it is actually pulling on your arm.
- Imagine someone hands you another balloon making your arm raise even higher.
- The balloons are really pulling on your arm now.
- So you have a heavy bucket in your right hand and a couple of big balloons pulling your left hand now. They are really stretching your arms apart, you can barely hold on!
Open your eyes
How far apart are your arms?
- The further apart they are, the more easily you can be hypnotized.
- How far apart are your arms?
How Can We Explain Hypnosis?
Psychologists offer various explanations for the behavior of people under hypnosis.
- Freud believed that hypnotized people permit themselves to return to childish ways of behaving.
- They allow themselves to put fantasy and impulse before fact and logic, allowing them to believe what the hypnotist tells them.
- Freud also believed that people enjoy becoming passive and waiting or the hypnotists to tell them what to do.
According to this theory, people who are hypnotized are playing a part as if they are in a play.
- Unlike actors in a play however, hypnotized people may believe that what they are doing is real.
Research suggests that many people in hypnotic trances are not faking it.
- Rather, they become involved in playing the part of hypnotized person.
- They try to use their imagination to experience what the hypnotist tells them to experience.
- According to this theory, people who are hypnotized are playing a part as if they are in a play.
- Psychologists offer various explanations for the behavior of people under hypnosis.
Is Hypnosis Effective?
Hypnosis and Memory
Police have occasionally used hypnosis to jog memories of witnesses of a crime.
- At times this has worked very well, but it is not considered very reliable.
Studies have shown that unhypnotized people are just as likely as hypnotized people to remember details of a crime.
- Hypnotized people are just as likely to make mistakes about details as those who are not hypnotized.
- Many psychologists agree that material recalled under hypnosis should not be used for testimony in a trial
- Police have occasionally used hypnosis to jog memories of witnesses of a crime.
- One interesting finding about hypnosis and memory has to do with the memory of events that occur during the hypnotic trance itself.
If directed by the hypnotist to not remember something, many people will act as if they do not recall what happened while they were hypnotized.
- They may not even remember they were hypnotized at all.
Hypnosis and Pain Prevention
- Hypnosis has been used to help people prevent feelings of pain.
- Some dentists have used hypnosis to successfully help patients avoid feeling pain during certain procedures.
- Some people are so suggestible, they are able to undergo surgery without anesthesia if they are hypnotized nd told they feel no pain.
Hypnosis and Quitting Bad Habits
- Posthypnotic Suggestion: Instructions given to a person under hypnosis that are supposed to be carried out after the hypnosis session has ended.
- This may be used to quit a habit like overeating or smoking.
- The therapist gives instructions during hypnosis that are to be carried out after the hypnosis session has ended.
Often psychologists will link it with something repulsive, something that would make the person feel ill or disgusted.
- Then whenever that person begins the habit, such as lighting up cigarette, that sickening image appears in his or her mind
Some psychologists used more positive posthypnotic suggestions.
- For example, telling a person that he or she now has the willpower to resists unhealthy foods.
- Hypnosis and Memory
Notes Chapter 5 Section 4: Drugs and Consciousness
Addiction: A compulsive need for and use of a habit forming substance.
- After a person takes a drug for a while, his or her body craves it just to feel normal.
Drugs affect consciousness by:
- Distorting people’s perception
- Changing their moods
- Causing them to see things that are not real.
- Addiction: A compulsive need for and use of a habit forming substance.
Depressants: A drug that reduces neural activity and slows body functions.
Depressants slow the activity of the nervous system.
- Alcohol and Narcotics are depressants.
- Depressants generally give people a sense of relaxation, but have many negative effects.
Alcohol – a depressant
- Alcohol is one of the most widely used drugs in the United States.
- High doses of alcohol can put a person to sleep.
- Too much alcohol can be lethal.
Intoxication: A state of drunkenness characterized by impaired coordination and judgment.
- The root word of intoxication is toxic which means “poisonous”
- Intoxication slurs peoples speech, blurs peoples vision, makes them clumsy, and makes it difficult to concentrate.
- Intoxication also effects judgment.
- Alcohol is involved in more than half of all fatal automobile accidents in the United States.
Some drinkers do thing they would not do if they were sober. Why?
- When intoxicated, people may be less able to focus on the consequences of their behavior.
- Alcohol can bring up feelings of elation that wash away inhibitions.
It provides an excuse for behavior that sober people know is unwise.
They will place the blame for their behavior on the alcohol.
- Since people choose to drink, they remain responsible for their actions when they are intoxicated.
- They will place the blame for their behavior on the alcohol.
Regular consumption of alcohol can lead to addiction.
- Once people become addicted, they may continue drinking to avoid withdrawal symptoms such as tension and trembling.
- Long-term heavy drinkers generally have liver problems, heart problems, and cancer.
Narcotics: A type of drug that dulls the senses, relieves pain, and induces sleep.
- Drugs derived from and opium poppy plant.
Types of narcotics include:
- This narcotic was introduced during the Civil War to deaden pain from battle wounds.
- Addition to morphine is sometimes called “soldiers disease”
- This was introduced in the west in the 1800s
- It was hailed as a hero that would cure addiction to morphine.
- It was named heroin because it made people feel heroic
This illegal drug is a powerful narcotic that can give the user feelings of pleasure.
- However, coming off heroine can plunge the user into a deep depression.
High doses impair judgment and memory and can cause drowsiness and stupor.
- High doses can also depress the respiratory system so much it leads to loss of consciousness, coma, or even death.
- Heroin users are also at risk at contracting AIDS from dirty needles.
- People who are addicted to narcotics experience withdrawal symptoms that include:
- Depressants slow the activity of the nervous system.
- Rapid heartbeat
Stimulants: A drug that increases neural activity and speeds up body functions.
- Stimulants include: nicotine, amphetamines, and cocaine.
- A drug found in tobacco
- Nicotine spurs the release of the hormone adrenaline, which cause the heart rate to increase.
- Nicotine may make people more alert and attentive, but research has shown it does improve the ability to perform complex tasks like solving difficult math problems.
Nicotine reduces the appetite and raises the rate at which the body changes food to energy.
- This is one reason people have trouble quitting.
- People can become addicted to nicotine with regular use.
- Some research has shown that nicotine is as addictive as heroin.
People who quit smoking can experience withdrawal symptoms which include:
- Nervousness, drowsiness, loss of energy, headaches, lightheadedness, insomnia, dizziness, cramps, heart palpitations, tremors, and sweating.
Each year more than 400,000 Americans die from smoking related diseases.
- This is more than the number who die from car accident, alcohol abuse, abuse of all another drugs, suicide, homicide, and AIDS combined.
Smokers are 12 to 20 times more likely to die of lung cancer than nonsmokers.
- PICTURE OF LUNGS WITH CANCER AND LUNGS WITHOUT CANCER
- The substances in cigarette s smoke have been shown to cause several other types of cancers in lab animals.
- Perhaps Americans understand the risk of smoking as the number of American adults who smoke has dropped from 40% in 1960 to less than 25% today.
Amphetamines: A type of stimulant often used to stay away or reduce appetite.
- Amphetamines were first used by soldiers during WWII to help them remain awake and alert at night.
- Amphetamines can produce feelings of pleasure, especially in high doses.
- People may take this drug in pill form or inject themselves with it.
- People who take high doses may stay wake and “high” for days, and then crash, or fall into a deep sleep or depression.
- High doses of amphetamines can cause restlessness, insomnia, loss of appetite, and irritability.
- Amphetamines also affect consciousness. They may have hallucinations or delusions.
Hallucination: A false sensory perception that occurs in the absence of any actual stimulus.
- A common hallucination for people high on amphetamines is the feelings of bugs crawling all over them.
Delusion: An incorrect belief
- For example thinking you could fly without an airplane or other flying device would be a delusion.
- Overdoses of amphetamines re often associate with delusions of being in danger or of being chased by someone or something.
Cocaine: A stimulant derived from the leaves of a coca plant.
- Cocaine produces feelings of pleasure, reduces hunger, deadens pain, and boosts self-confidence.
- Cocaine can also raise blood pressure and decrease the supply of oxygen to the heart while speeding up the heart rate.
Cocaine has been used as a painkiller since the early 1800s.
It came to the attention of Freud in 1884
Freud was a young neurologist at the time who used the drug to overcome depression.
- It was considered a medicine much like Tylenol or Advil
- He even published an article about it called “Song of Praise.”
- However Freud came to realize the drug was dangerous and addictive.
- Freud was a young neurologist at the time who used the drug to overcome depression.
- It came to the attention of Freud in 1884
- Overdoses of cocaine can cause symptoms of restlessness insomnia, trembling, nausea, convulsions, hallucinations and delusions.
A form of cocaine called Crack is very powerful.
- It is also impure and therefore even more dangerous.
Is it true that coca cola once contained cocaine?
- There was a very tiny amount of cocaine in the formula until 1903 when it was removed.
Hallucinogens: A psychedelic drug that distorts people’s perceptions and evokes sensory images in the absence of sensory input.
- Hallucinogens can produce feelings of pleasure and panic.
- Examples of Hallucinogens include Marijuana and LSD
- Produces feelings of relaxation and mild hallucinations.
- Hash, which comes from the sticky part of the plant, has even stronger effects then marijuana.
- It impairs perception, coordination, makes it difficult to operate machines, impairs memory, impairs learning, and can cause anxiety and confusion.
- It can raise blood pressure and heart rate.
- One hundred years ago, marijuana was used by some people almost the way aspirin is used to today – to treat headaches and other minor aches and pains.
- It could be bought without a prescription at a drug store.
- It is now illegal.
Marijuana has distinct effects on consciousness.
People high on marijuana may think time is passing more slowly than usual.
- A song may seem to last and hour rather than a few minutes.
- Some people experience increased consciousness of bodily sensations such as heartbeat.
- Experiencing visual hallucinations is also fairly common while under the influence of marijuana.
- Consciousness of a rapid heart rate leads some to fear their hearts will “run away”
- People high on marijuana may think time is passing more slowly than usual.
LSD – Lysergic acid diethylamide (Acid)
- Much stronger then marijuana and can produce intense hallucinations which can be quite bizarre.
- Some people think they make great discoveries while on LSDs but then cannot remember them when the affects wear off.
- LSDs effects are unpredictable.
- Some users may be put into a state of panic and confusion, they may injure themselves, or even commit suicide.
- Side effects include memory loss, violent outbursts, nightmares, and feelings of panic.
Another long-term effect would be flashbacks.
- These are hallucinations that occur weeks, months, or even years after the LSD was used.
- These gives evidence that LSD may cause chemical changes in the brain.
Treatments for Drug Abuse:
- Maintenance Programs
- Support Groups
Detoxification: The removal of a harmful substance from the body.
- It is a way of weaning addicts from a drug while restoring their health.
- This is often used with those addicted to alcohol or narcotics.
- Participants in these programs are given controlled and less dangerous amounts of the drug or some less addictive substitute.
- This treatment is very controversial because users never actually become completely free of drugs.
- Used to treat people addicted to narcotics.
- Can be individual or group.
- Used to treat stimulant and depressant abuse.
- Consist of several people who share common experiences, concerns, or problems.
- They provide each other with emotional and moral support.
- Example: Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A.)