The term "ergonomics" is derived from two Greek words: "___________________," meaning work, and "___________________," meaning natural laws. Ergonomists ___________________ human capabilities in relationship to work demands.
In recent years, ___________________ have attempted to define postures which minimize unnecessary static work and reduce the forces acting on the body. All of us could significantly reduce our risk of ___________________ if we could adhere to the following ergonomic principles:
- All work activities should permit the worker to adopt several different, but equally healthy and safe ___________________.
- Where muscular ___________________ has to be exerted it should be done by the largest appropriate muscle groups available.
- Work activities should be performed with the joints at about mid-point of their range of ___________________. This applies particularly to the head, trunk, and upper limbs.
Here, however, we arrive at a serious ___________________- and a challenge to conventional ergonomic thinking: In order to put these recommendations into practice, a person would have to be a skilled observer of his or her own joint and muscle functioning and would have to be able to change his or her posture to a healthier one at ___________________. No one develops this sort of highly refined sensory awareness without special ___________________. Therefore, in order to derive the benefits of ergonomic research, we must learn how to observe our bodies in a new way.* Any attempt to improve workplace conditions can have only limited success if this issue is ___________________.
One training program that cultivates precisely these skills is the ______________________________________. It has a long history of helping people develop the subtle coordination of thought and physical action required to monitor and alter harmful patterns of ___________________and ___________________. In short, it enables its students to put ergonomic principles into practice, and thus helps them reduce their ___________________ of developing a repetitive strain ___________________and other stress-related ___________________. For example, a comprehensive study published by the British Medical Journal in 2008 offers overwhelming ___________________ that the Alexander Technique is a very effective way of alleviating ___________________.
The Alexander Technique was developed in the early 20th century before ergonomics became a recognized ___________________ and has been applied since then by people all ages and ___________________. The Technique can be described as a simple and practical educational ___________________ which alerts people to ways in which they are misusing their ___________________ , and how their everyday ___________________of work may be ___________________ them. It teaches people how to avoid work habits which create excessive amounts of static work and how to reduce the amount of unnecessary muscular force they are applying to their bodies. Stated another way, the Technique teaches the use of the ___________________ amount of effort for a particular activity.
General Duty Clause
The General Duty Clause describes the employer's obligation to "___________________ to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are ___________________ from recognized ___________________ that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees." This clause from the OSH Act is utilized to ___________________ serious hazards where no specific OSHA standard exists to address the hazard, as is the case with ergonomic ___________________.
When OSHA uses the General Duty Clause to cite an employer, ___________________ must demonstrate that:
- the employer ___________________to keep the workplace free of a hazard to which employees were exposed,
- the hazard was causing or likely to cause death or serious ___________________harm,
- the hazard was ___________________, and
- a feasible means of ___________________ for that hazard exists.
Maintaining the natural ___________________ of the spine when standing promotes “good ___________________ ”. So what does that mean? The human spine looks a little bit like an S from the side, and maintaining those two curves is ___________________.
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· Keep your head directly over the ___________________ (i.e. “chest out, head back”)
· Keep the ___________________ directly over the pelvis
· Tighten the core ___________________ muscles
· Place the feet slightly ___________________, with one foot positioned slightly in front of the other and knees ___________________ just a little bit (i.e., not locked).
If this posture is new it may feel strange at first, but after awhile it will feel natural. If it feels too ___________________ or tiring, use light weights or elastic bands to work the muscles between the shoulder blades (e.g. rhomboids and middle ___________________). It will quickly get easier.
If standing on a concrete floor is required at work, it is best to wear shoes with good support and cushioning. A ___________________mat placed on the concrete floor will ease pressure on the back and enhance the favorable ergonomic conditions. Use a railing or box to prop one foot up while standing to help take ___________________off the back. This standing position takes some practice. Remember to ___________________feet and positions every 20 ___________________.
Office Chair Sitting Posture
Posture is important for sitting in office chairs and at a ___________________. Many of us spend hours in front of the ___________________, resulting in back pain or neck pain. Much of this pain may be avoided by a combination of:
· Adopting a user-friendly ___________________ by adjusting the office chair, computer and desk positioning
· Modifying sitting posture in an office chair. Many people sit towards the ___________________of their chair and end up hunching ___________________to look at their computer screen. The better seated posture is to sit back in the office chair and utilize the chair’s ___________________ support to keep the head and neck erect.
· Taking stretch breaks and walking breaks if sitting in an office chair for ___________________ periods of time.
A consistent, comfortable workstation depends on where the computer screen is situated, where the hands and feet are placed, and the kind of office chair.
· Choose the surface height for the desk (standing, sitting or semi-seated) best for the task to be performed. Architects and draftsman may want a higher surface for ___________________ while computer entry work could be seated or standing, depending on the need to use other ___________________ or references. The specific height of the work surface will also need to vary based on the height of the ___________________ worker.
· Adjust the seat of the office chair so that the work surface is “___________________high.” A fist should be able to pass easily behind the calf and in front of the seat edge to keep the back of the legs from being pressed too hard and the feet from ___________________. Two fingers should slip easily under each thigh. If not, use a couple of telephone books or a footrest to raise the knees ___________________with the hips. The backrest of the office chair should push the low back forward slightly. If these adjustments cannot be ___________________ made with the existing office chair, a different make or type of chair may be considered.
· Fit the height of the computer screen. Sit comfortably in the newly adjusted office chair. Close both ___________________ and relax. Then, slowly reopen them. Where the gaze initially focuses should be when the eyes open is the place to put the ___________________ of the computer screen. The screen can be raised using books or a stand if needed.