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Chapter 5 Skeletal System

Chapter 5 Objectives

  • Bones: An Overview (pp. 130-139)
  • Identify the subdivisions of the skeleton as axial or appendicular.
  • List at least three functions of the skeletal system.
  • Name the four main kinds of bones.
  • Identify the major anatomical areas of a long bone.
  • Explain the role of bone salts and the organic matrix in making bone both hard and flexible.
  • Describe briefly the process of bone formation in the fetus and summarize the events of bone remodeling throughout life.
  • Name and describe the various types of fractures.
  • Axial Skeleton (pp. 139-153)
  • On a skull or diagram, identify and name the bones of the skull.
  • Describe how the skull of a newborn infant (or fetus) differs from that of an adult, and explain the function of fontanels.
  • Name the parts of a typical vertebra and explain in general how the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae differ from one another.
  • Discuss the importance of the intervertebral discs and spinal curvatures.
  • Explain how the abnormal spinal curvatures (scoliosis, lordosis, and kyphosis) differ from one another.
  • Appendicular Skeleton (pp. 153-162)
  • Identify on a skeleton or diagram the bones of the shoulder and pelvic girdles and their attached limbs.
  • Describe important differences between a male and female pelvis.
  • Joints (pp. 163-168)
  • Name the three major categories of joints and compare the amount of movement allowed by each. Developmental Aspects of the Skeleton (pp. 168-170)
  • Identify some of the causes of bone and joint problems throughout life.

Chapter 5 Outline Framework

  • BONES: AN OVERVIEW (pp. 130-139)
  • Functions of the Bones
    • Support
    • Protection
    • Movement
    • Storage
    • Blood Cell Formation
  • Classification of Bones
    • Compact Bone
    • Spongy Bone
  • Structure of a Long Bone
    • Gross Anatomy
    • Microscopic Anatomy
  • Bone Formation, Growth, and Remodeling
  • Bone Fractures
  • AXIAL SKELETON (pp. 139-153)
    • Skull (pp. 120-126)
      • Cranium
      • Frontal Bone
      • Parietal Bones
      • Temporal Bones
      • External Auditory Meatus
      • Styloid Process
      • Zygomatic Process
      • Mastoid Process
      • Jugular Foramen
      • Occipital Bone
      • Sphenoid Bone
      • Ethmoid Bone
      • Facial Bones
      • Maxillae
      • alatine Bones
      • Zygomatic Bones
      • Lacrimal Bones
      • Nasal Bones
      • Vomer Bone
      • Inferior Conchae
      • Mandible
      • The Hyoid Bone
      • Fetal Skull
    • Vertebral Column (Spine)
      • Cervical Vertebrae
      • Thoracic Vertebrae
      • Lumbar Vertebrae
      • Sacrum
      • Coccyx
    • Bony Thorax
      • Sternum
      • Ribs
        • True Ribs
        • False Ribs
        • Floating Ribs
  • APPENDICULAR SKELETON (pp. 153-162)
    • Bones of the Shoulder Girdle
      • Clavical (Collarbones)
      • Scapulae (Shoulder Blades)
    • Bones of the Upper Limbs
      • Arm
        • Humerus
      • Forearm
        • Radius
        • Ulna
      • Hand
        • Carpals
        • Metacarpals
        • Phalanges
    • Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
      • Coxal Bones (Hip Bones)
        • lium I
        • schium
        • Pubis
    • Bones of the Lower Limbs
      • Thigh
        • Femur
      • Leg
        • Tibia
        • Fibula
      • Foot
        • Tarsals
        • Metatarsals
        • Phalanges
  • JOINTS (pp. 163-168)
    • Fibrous Joints
    • Cartilaginous Joints
    • Synovial Joints
    • Plane Joint
    • Hinge Joint
    • Pivot Joint
    • Condyloid Joint
    • Saddle Joint
    • Ball-and-Socket Joint
    • Inflammatory Disorders of Joints
    • DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE SKELETON (pp. 168-170)

Bone Basics Tems 

  • compact bone
  • spongy bone
  • long bones
  • short bones
  • flat bones
  • irregular bones
  • diaphysis
  • periosteum
  • epiphyses
  • articular cartilage
  • epiphyseal line
  • epiphyseal plate
  • yellow marrow (medullary) cavity
  • red marrow
  • bone markings
  • tuberosity
  • crest
  • trochanter
  • line
  • tubercle
  • epicondyle
  • spine
  • head
  • facet
  • condyle
  • ramus
  • meatus
  • sinus
  • fossa
  • groove
  • fissure
  • foramen
  • microscopic anatomy
  • osteocytes
  • lacunae
  • lamellae
  • central (Haversian) canals
  • Haversian system
  • canaliculi
  • perforating (Volkman/s) canals
  • ossification
  • osteoblasts
  • osteoclasts
  • osteocytes
  • fractures
  • closed reduction
  • open reduction
  • hematoma
  • fibrocargilage
  • callus
  • simple
  • compound
  • comminuted
  • compression
  • depressed
  • impacted
  • spiral
  • greenstick

 

Axial Skeleton Terms

  • Skull (cranium)
  • frontal bone
  • parietal bones
  • temporal bones
  • external auditory meatus
  • styloid process
  • zygomatic process
  • mastoid process
  • jugular foramen
  • carotid canal
  • occipital bone
  • suture
  • foramen magnum
  • occipital condyles
  • sphenoid bone
  • sella turcica
  • foramen ovale
  • ethmoid bone
  • facial bones
  • maxillae
  • maxillary bones
  • palatine processes
  • paranasal sinuses
  • palatine bones
  • cleft palate
  • zygomatic bones
  • lacrimal bones
  • nasal bones
  • vomer bone
  • inferior conchae
  • mandible
  • hyoid bone
  • fetal skull
  • fontanels
  • Vertebral Column (Spine)
  • vertebrae
  • intervertebral discs
  • primary curvatures
  • secondary curvatures
  • body (centrum)
  • vertebral arch
  • vertebral foramen
  • transverse processes
  • spinous process
  • superior and inferior articular processes
  • cervical vertebrae
  • atlas
  • axis
  • odontoid process (dens)
  • thoracic vertebrae
  • lumbar vertebrae
  • sacrum
  • alae
  • median sacral crest
  • sacral canal
  • coccyx
  • bony thorax
  • sternum
  • manubrium
  • body
  • xiphoid process
  • ribs
  • true ribs
  • false ribs
  • floating ribs

Limbs Terms

  • Appendicular Skeleton 
  • shoulder girdle (pectoral girdle)
  • clavicle
  • scapula (scapulae)
  • acromion
  • coracoid process
  • glenoid cavity
  • arm
  • humerus
  • greater tubercle
  • lesser tubercle
  • deltoid tuberosity
  • trochlea
  • capitulum
  • coronoid fossa
  • olecranon fossa
  • radius
  • radial tuberosity
  • ulna
  • coronoid fossa
  • olecranon process
  • trochlear notch
  • carpal bones
  • carpus
  • metacarpals
  • phalanges
  • pelvic girdle
  • coxal bones (ossa coxae)
  • illium
  • sacroiliac joint
  • iliac crest
  • anterior superior spine
  • posterior superior spine
  • ischium
  • ischial tuberosity
  • ischial spine
  • sciatic notch
  • pubis
  • obturator foramen
  • symphysis
  • acetabulum
  • false pelvis
  • true pelvis
  • leg
  • femur
  • greater trochanter
  • lesser trochanter
  • nterotrochanteric crest
  • gluteal tuberosity
  • tibial tuberosity
  • medial malleolus
  • anterior crest fibula
  • lateral malleolus
  • tarsus t
  • arsal bones
  • calcaneus
  • talus
  • metatarsals
  • phalanges
  • joints
  • articulations
  • ynarthroses
  • amphiarthroses
  • diarthroses
  • fibrous joints
  • syndesmoses
  • cartilaginous joints
  • synovial joints
  • articular cartilage
  • fibrous articular capsule
  • joint cavity
  • reinforcing ligaments
  • osteoarthritis
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • gouty arthritis (gout)
  • osteoporosis

SKELETON ACTIVITIES

Bone in a box from Loyola U Med School: http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/learnem/bones/main_bone.htm

Assemble a skeleton: http://sv.berkeley.edu/showcase/pages/bones.html

Anatomy of the skeleton: http://www.scoi.com/spinanat.htm

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