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Chapter 7 Nervous System Part I (CNS)

Chapter 7 Objectives

Organization of the Nervous System (pp. 223-224)

  • List the general functions of the nervous system.
  • Explain the structural and functional classifications of the nervous system.
  • Define central nervous system and peripheral nervous system and list the major parts of each.
Nervous Tissue: Structure and Function (pp. 224-235)
  • State the function of neurons and neuroglia.
  • Describe the general structure of a neuron and name its important anatomical regions.
  • Describe the composition of gray matter and white matter.
  • List the two major functional properties of neurons.
  • Classify neurons according to structure and function.
  • List the types of general sensory receptors and describe their functions.
  • Describe the events that lead to the generation of a nerve impulse and its conduction from one neuron to another.
  • Define reflex arc and list its elements.
Central Nervous System (pp. 235-249)
  • Identify and indicate the functions of the major regions of the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum on a human brain model or diagram.
  • Name the three meningeal layers and state their functions.
  • Discuss the formation and function of cerebrospinal fluid and the blood-brain barrier.
  • Compare the signs of a CVA with those of Alzheimer s disease; of a contusion with those of a concussion.
  • Define EEG and explain how it evaluates neural functioning.
  • List two important functions of the spinal cord.
  • Describe spinal cord structure.


Chapter 7 - The Nervous System Outline

ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

Structural Classification

  • Central Nervous System (CNS)
  • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Functional Classification
  • Sensory (Afferent) Division
  • Motor (Efferent) Division
  • Somatic Nervous System
  • Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
NERVOUS TISSUE: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
  • Supporting Cells
  • Neurons
  • Anatomy
  • Classification
  • Sensory (Afferent) Neurons
  • Motor (Efferent) Neurons
  • Association Neurons (Interneurons)
  • Physiology
  • Nerve Impulses
  • Reflex Arc
  • Autonomic Reflexes
  • Somatic Reflexes
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Functional Anatomy of the Brain
  • Cerebral Hemispheres
  • Diencephalon
  • Brain Stem
  • Midbrain
  • Pons
  • Medulla Oblongata
  • Cerebellum
Protection of the Central Nervous System
  • Meninges
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • The Blood-Brain Barrier
Brain Dysfunctions
  • Traumatic Brain Injuries
  • Degenerative Brain Diseases
  • Cerebrovascular Accidents
  • Alzheimer's Disease
  • Spinal Cord
Gray Matter of the Spinal Cords and Spinal Roots
  • White Matter of the Spinal Cord


Central Nervous System Terms

Brain

  • neural tube
  • ventricles
  • cerebral hemispheres
  • gyri
  • sulci
  • fissures
  • somatic sensory area
  • parietal lobe
  • occipital lobe
  • temporal lobe
  • primary motor area
  • frontal lobe
  • pyramidal (corticospinal) tract
  • Broca's area
  • speech area
  • gray matter
  • cerebral cortex
  • cerebral white matter
  • corpus callosum
  • basal nuclei
  • Huntington's chorea
  • parkinson's disease
  • diencephalon (interbrain)
  • thalamus
  • hypothalamus
  • limbic system
  • pituitary gland
  • mamillary godies
  • epithalamus
  • pineal body
  • choroid plexis
  • brain stem
  • reticular formation
  • reticular activating system (RAS)
  • midbrain
  • cerebral aqueduct
  • cerebral peduncles
  • corpora quadrigimina
  • pons
  • medulla oblongata
  • cerebellum
  • meninges
  • dura mater
  • arachnoid mater
  • pia mater
  • arachnoid villi
  • cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  • blood~brain barrier
Brain Dysfunction
  • traumatic brain injuries
  • concusion
  • contusion
  • cerebral edema
  • cerebrovascular accident (stroke)
  • Alzheimer's disease
Spinal Cord
  • dorsal (posterior) horns
  • ventral (anterior) horns
  • central canal
  • dorsal root
  • dorsal root ganglion
  • ventral root
  • posterior column
  • lateral column
  • anterior column
Nervous System Basics
  • sensory input
  • integration
  • motor output
  • central nervous system (CNS)
  • peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  • sensory (afferent) nerves
  • motor (efferent) nerves)
  • somatic nervous system
  • voluntary nervous system
  • autonomic nervous system (ANS)
  • involuntary nervous system
Nerve Cells and Tissues
  • neuroglia
  • astrocytes
  • microglia
  • ependymal cells
  • oligodencrocytes
  • Schwann cells
  • satellite cells
  • neurons
  • cell body
  • processes (fibers)
  • dendrites
  • axons
  • axonal terminals
  • neurotransmitters
  • synaptic cleft
  • synapse
  • myelin
  • myelin sheath
  • neurolemma
  • nodes of Ranvier
  • nuclei
  • ganglia
  • tracts
  • nerves
  • white matter
  • gray matter
  • receptors
  • cutaneous sense organs
  • proprioceptors
  • association neurons (interneurons)
  • multipolar neuron
  • bipolar neuron
  • unipolar neuron
  • nerve impulse
  • polarized
  • depolarization
  • action potential
  • repolarization
  • saltatory conduction
  • reflexes
  • relex arc
  • autonomic reflexes
  • somatic reflexes

 

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