Unit 6 Vocabulary

Homologous Chromosome=Chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes and the same structure

Mitosis= A process of cell division that forms two nuclei, each of which has the same # of chromosomes

Meiosis=The process of reproducing cells with half the number of chromosomes

Sex Chromosomes= One pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual

Pedigree=A diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family

Asexual Reproduction=Reproduction where only 1 parent produces offspring identical to itself

Sexual Reproduction=Two parents come together to produce an offspring with characteristics from both parents

Fertilization=A process in sexual reporduction where a sperm joins with an egg

Binary Fission=A process of asexual reproduction where the parent (bacteria) makes a genetic copy of itself then divides into two cells

Budding=A type of asexual reproduction where a small cell grows from the body of a parent, then breaks off and grows into a new offspring.

DNA= Deoxyribonucleic Acid.  A molecule that is present in all living cells and that contains the information that determines the traits that a living thing inherits and need to live.

RNA=Ribonucleic Acid.  A molecule that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein production

Haploid=A cell with half the number of chromosomes

Diploid=Full set of chromosomes produced by mitosis of an organism.

Selective Breeding=The human practice of breeding animals or plants that have certain desired traits

Genetic Engineering=The process of removing a bit of genetic material from one organism and inserting it into another organism

Cloning=The process of using the genetic information from a single cell of an organism to produce another organism with the same genetic information

Nucleotide=In a nucleic acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base.

Ribosome=A cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis

Mutation=A change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a gene or DNA molecule.