Unit 8 Vocabulary (Chapter 8 & 9)

Chapter 8 and Chapter 9 Vocab Words


Relative Dating

Classification=The division of organisms into groups, or classes, based on specific characteristics

Taxonomy=The science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms

Dichotomous Key=An aid that is used to identify organisms and that consist of the answers to a series of questions

Genus=In classification of organisms, this is a subdivision of a family, usually consisting of more than one species.

Scientific Naming (Binomial Nomenclature)=Developed by Linnaeus as a way to give each species a two-part scientific name.  The first part of the name is the genus name.  The second part of the name is the specific part.

Prokaryote=Single-celled organisms that do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles, but do have DNA and ribosomes.  These organisms live almost everywhere.

Eukaryote=All organisms whose cells have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

Species=A group of organisms that are closely related and can mate to produce fertile offspring

Kingdom=The second highest taxonomic group into which organisms are grouped.  There are 6  different categories:  Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Eubacteria, and Archebacteria

Fungi=A kingdom made up of non-green, eukaryotic organisms that have no means of movement, reproduce by using spores, and get food by breaking down substances in their surroundings and absorbing the nutrients.

Plantae=A kingdom consisting of organisms that are eukaryotic, have cell walls, and make food through photosynthesis.

Animalia=A kingdom made up of complex, multicellular organisms that lack cell walls, can usually move around, and quickly respond to their environment.

Archaea=A type of prokaryote that has a different cell wall than other organisms.  These organisms live in extreme environments, where no other organisms could live (extremophiles)

Bacteria=The smallest cells known, live almost anywhere, and do not have a nucleus.

Protista=A kingdom of single-celled or simple multicellular organisms.  Include protozoans and algae..