Chapter 24 Section 1 Guided Reading (worksheet)

A. 1. Whites used brutal methods to terrorize and dehumanize them, trying to keep them powerless; slaves outnumbered their masters.

2. Toussaint L'Ouverture became the leader of the revolution, but the French imprisoned him.  Then Gerneral Dessalines took over the rebellion.

3. Motivated by Enlightenment ideals, creoles finally revolted against Spanish colonial rule when Napoleon made his brother, who was not Spanish, king of Spain.

4. Bolivar used surprise tactics to defeat the Spanish in Bogota.  San Martin, with the help of Bernardo O'Higgins, drove the Spanish out of Chile.  The two leaders then met in Ecuador and San Martin left his army for Bolivar to command; this unified revolutionary force, under Bolivar, won independence for Peru.

5. With the cry of Dolores, Padre Miguel Hidalgo called upon peasants to rebel against Spanish rule.

6. Indians and mestizos began the revolution; later, creoles, fearing the loss of privileges under a new liberal regime in Spain, supported independence.

B. At the top of Spanish colonial society were the peninsulares, who were Spanish-born; then came the creoles, Spaniards born in Latin America.  Below them were people of mixed ancetry- first the mestizos (persons of mixed European and Indian ancestry) and then mulattos (persons of mixed European and African ancestry).  The Africans came next, and at the bottom stood the Indians.

Chapter 24 Section 2 Guided Reading (worksheet)

A. 1. fuled nationalist movements and revolutions throughout Europe

2. A joint British, French & Russian fleet defeated the Ottomans, and Greece gained its independence.

3. forced resignation of Metternich, triggered liberal uprisings throughout German states, but revolutionaries' failure to unite led to return of conservatism.

4. led to riots that forced him to flee to Britain and led to replacement by Louis-Philippe, a supporter of liberal reform

5. Republican government is set up, but factions turn to violence, resulting in bloody battles.

6. under this strong ruler, prosperity, peace and stability were restored

7. Russia was defeated by combined forces of France, Great Britain, Sardinia and Ottomans; after war, Alexander II began to modernize Russia.

8. Serfs were legally free but remained tied to the land through debts.

B. Conservatives: protectors of traditional order; Liberals: people who advocate more power for elected legislatures; Radicals: extremists who favor drastic change in government; Nationalism: loyal to one's nation; Nation-State: coutnry with an independent government that is made up of people who share a common culture.

Chapter 24 Section 3 Guided Reading (Worksheet)
A. 1. Nationalist disputes led to the division of the empire into two states, Austria and Hungry.  After WWI, the empire divided into separate nation-states.
2. Nationalist feeling of non-Russian peoples, fueled by the policy of Russification, weakened the empire, which fell as a result of war and revolution.
3. Conservative Turks, angered by the Ottoman policy of granting equal citizenship to nationalist groups, caused tensions that weakened and eventually broke up the empire.
4. as prime minister of Sardinian king, worked to expand Sardinian empire; through war, alliances, and help of nationalist rebels, succeeded; in the process, unified Italy.
5. captured Sicily and united the southern areas of Italy he conquered with kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia
6. pulled together northern and southern regions of Italy and took over the Papal states unifying Italy.
7. This policy of tough politics allowed Bismarck to expand Prussia and achieve dominance over Germany.
8. Victory over Austria gave Prussia control over northern Germany.
9. Victory over France motivated southern Germany to accept Prussian leadership

B. Through a policy of “blood and iron,” Otto von Bismarck eliminated Austria as a rival, provoked war with France, and achieved Prussian dominance over northern and southern Germany to create the Second Reich, ruled by Kaiser William I.

Chapter 24 Section 4 Guided Reading (Worksheet)

A. 1. emphasized emotions over reason, untamed nature over natural laws and order; idealized past

2. Romantic writers glorified heroes and heroic actions, passionate love, revolutionary spirit, nature and the super-natural

3. Romantic painters focused on the beauty of nature, love, religion, and nationalism

4. Romantic themes helped to popularize music and celebrate heroism and nationalism

5. industrialization, interes in scientific method, invention of camera

6. the camera made possible startlingly real and objective images.

7. strugle for wealth and power, grim lives of working class

8. they hoped to bring about social reform and improve working and living conditions.

B. Impressionaism is an artisitic style in which artists aim to capture their "impressions", or feelings, about a subject, rather than depict realistic details.  Descriptions will vary but should not Monet's use of color and light and the mood he conveys.















-------not included in your packet------------

Chapter 24 Section 3 Primary Source (Worksheet)
Proclamation of 1860
1. money, arms, and volunteer soldiers
2. because it was their duty; because indifference in the past led to Italy’s domination by other nations; because Sicilians needed help to fight the armies of Austria, the Spanish Bourbons, and the Roman Catholic popes; because of liberation of Sicily was an important step in the unification of Italy
3. name-calling, loaded words, and bandwagon are some techniques of propaganda.  Examples of this are referring to the soldiers of the opposition as mercenaries, calling Italy the motherland, and calling Garibaldi’s soldiers sons and brothers.

Chapter 24 Section 3 page 697 #2-8 (bookwork)
2. Italy- 1848 Cavour appointed prim minister; 1858 French help drive out Austria; 1860 Garibaldi gives up power to king Victor Emmanuel.  
Germany- 1862 Bismarck appointed prim minister; 1866 Seven Weeks’ War; 1870 Franco-Prussian War.
3. Austrian, Russian and Ottoman Empire
4. His forces took control of Sicily and southern Italy
5. It had a mainly German population and a powerful army.  It was industrialized.
6. unite people of the same ethnic group; unify different groups who have the same beliefs; separate people along ethnic groups who have same beliefs; separate people along ethnic lines; cause persecution of certain groups.
7. All had large ethnic groups who wished to be separate; all were controlled by conservatives who did not want to give up power.
8. He used military power to achieve goals and had little use for speeches and resolutions.

Chapter 24 Assessment page 704 #15-17 (bookwork)
15. Disunity- it broke up centuries-old  empires into nation-states.  Unity- it inspired people with the same history, culture and language to form nation-states.
16. He used careful diplomacy, well-chosen alliances, and cunning.
17. He provoked Austria and France into separate wars, reasoning that the two wars would unite the German people behind Prussia.