Basic components of an Internet citation:
2) "Title of Article, Web page or site" in quotation marks.
3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project, underlined.
4) Editor of Project.
5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious.
6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified.
7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site.
8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site).
9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets.
Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual's e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons.
Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title. Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or "less than" and "greater than" signs at the end of the citation. Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL.
If the URL is too long for a line, divide the address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities. Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock. Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page. Accuracy and clarity are essential.
a. Internet citation for an advertisement:
IBM. Advertisement. 23 Mar. 2003 <http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/
TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004 <http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm>.
b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated:
Bezlova, Antoaneta. "China to Formalize One-Child Policy." Asia Times Online.
24 May 2001. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html>.
Clifford, Erin. "Review of Neuropsychology." SparkNotes. 10 Oct. 2005
Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada. Ottawa:
Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf>.
Marshall, Leon. "Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest." 9 Feb. 2001.
National Geographic 10 Oct. 2005 <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/
Thomason, Larisa. "HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters." Webmaster Tips
Newsletter. Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.netmechanic.com/
If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the location of the library where the database is accessed, e.g.:
Gearan, Anne. "Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected." Washington Post. 8 May 2002.
SIRS. Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr. 2004
Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of access. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14. Leave out page numbers if not indicated in source.
Pahl, Greg. "Heat Your Home with Biodiesel". Mother Earth News. 12 Jan. 2003.
eLibrary Canada. Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Apr. 2006.
Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school.
Pahl, Greg. "Heat Your Home with Biodiesel". Mother Earth News. 12 Jan. 2003.
eLibrary Canada. 10 Apr. 2006. <http://www.proquestk12.com>.
c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia:
Duiker, William J. "Ho Chi Minh." Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2005. Microsoft. 10 Oct. 2005
"Ho Chi Minh." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
9 Oct. 2005 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629>.
"Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC)." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 2005. Encyclopædia Britannica.
8 Oct. 2005 <http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567>.
d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated:
"Childcare Industry 'Should Welcome Men'." BBC News Online: Education.7 June 2003.
10 Oct. 2005 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm>.
"Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus." BrookesNews.Com. 8 Dec. 2003.
10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html>.
e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal:
Nielsen, Laura Beth. "Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in
Public as Hate Speech." Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003
f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.:
"Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map." Map. Atlapedia Online. 1993-2003.
Latimer Clarke. 7 June 2003 <http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/
Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. "Congratulations!" Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts.
2000. 7 June 2003 <http://www.bluemountain.com/
Lee, Lawrence. Interview. JournalismJobs.com. Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005
Schulz, Charles. "Peanuts Collection - Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock." Cartoon. Art.com.
25 Apr. 2004 <http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710&RFID=814547>.
"Woodhull, Victoria C." American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. State
Historical Society of Wisconsin. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://us.history.wisc.edu/
g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail:
Barr, Susan I. "The Creatine Quandry." Bicycling Nov. 1998. EBSCOhost Mailer.
E-mail to E. Interior. 11 May 2003.
Kenrick, John. "Re: Link to Musicals101.com." E-mail to I. Lee. 10 May 2003.
"NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005." E-mail to author. 8 Sept. 2005
LII Team <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
PicoSearch. "Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed." E-mail to John Smith.
10 Oct. 2005.
h. Internet citation for an online government publication:
Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board
Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector.
6 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/
United States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights.
29 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/
i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor:
Kao, Ivy. "Keep Spreading the Word." Online posting. 4 June 2003. Reader Responses,
Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page. 10 Oct. 2005
Seaside Harry. "My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!" Online
posting. 10 Oct. 2005. PriusOnline.com Forum Index - Prius - Technical.
10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298&highlight=>.
j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site:
The MAD Scientist Network. 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U
School of Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005. <http://www.madsci.org>.
O'Connor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. "John Wilkins." Feb. 2002. U of St. Andrews,
Scotland. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/
Officer, Lawrence H. "Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty
Other Countries, 1913 -1999." Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002.
13 Apr. 2006 <http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/>.
Savill, R. Richard. "Jazz Age Biographies." The Jazz Age Page. 23 Oct. 2000.
12 Apr. 2006 <http://www.btinternet.com/~dreklind/threetwo/Biograph.htm>.
Sullivan, Danny. "Search Engine Math." 26 Oct. 2001. Search Engine Watch.
10 Apr. 2006 <http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html>.
Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. "Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?"
Inquiry and Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and
Research Institute. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?
k. Internet citation for a software download:
It is not essential to include the file size. Do so if preferred by your instructor.
RAMeSize. Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software. 12 Oct. 2004
l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor:
Lincoln, Abraham. "The Gettysburg Address." 19 Nov. 1863. The Collected Works of
Abraham Lincoln. Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP,
1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://showcase.netins.net/
m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by another:
Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions & Enchiridion. Trans. and ed.
Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993.
10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/
Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Minister's Office. 31 May 2003. 13 Apr. 2006
Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005
Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006.
Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006.
Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.
State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date.
Bradley, Vicki. "Marriage." Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. 2003.
26. Letter, editorial:
Wilson-Smith, Anthony. "Hello, He Must Be Going." Editorial. Maclean's 26 Aug. 2002: 4.
Letter to the Editor:
Lange, Rick. "U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded." Letter. Buffalo
News 23 Jan. 2005: I5.
Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16.
Kolbert, Elizabeth. "Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?" Letter.
New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37.
Reply to a letter to the Editor:
Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1.
A letter you received from John Smith:
Smith, John. Letter to the author. 15 June 2005.
Published letter in a collection:
Twain, Mark. "Banned in Concord." Letter to Charles L. Webster. 18 Mar. 1885.
Letter 850318 of Mark Twain. Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. 10 Oct. 2005