Children with a diagnosis of deafness have a severe hearing impairment. They aren’t able to process language through hearing.


  • Difficulty following verbal directions
  • Difficulty with oral expression
  • Some difficulties with social/emotional or interpersonal skills
  • Will often have a degree of language delay
  • Often follows and rarely leads
  • Will usually exhibit some form of articulation difficulty
  • Can become easily frustrated if their needs are not met — which may lead to some behavioral difficulties
  • Sometimes the use of hearing aids leads to embarrassment and fear of rejection from peers


Amplification Options:

  • Personal hearing device (hearing aid, cochlear implant, tactile device)
  • Personal FM system (hearing aid + FM)
  • FM system/auditory trainer (without personal hearing aid)
  • Walkman-style FM system
  • Sound-field FM system

Assistive Devices:

  • TDD
  • TV captioned

Communication Accommodations:

  • Specialized seating arrangements
  • Obtain student’s attention prior to speaking
  • Reduce auditory distractions (background noise)
  • Reduce visual distractions
  • Enhance speech reading conditions (avoid hands in front of face, mustaches well-trimmed, no gum chewing)
  • Present information in simple structured, sequential manner
  • Clearly enunciate speech
  • Allow extra time for processing information
  • Repeat or rephrase information when necessary
  • Frequently check for understanding

Physical Environment Accommodations:

  • Noise reduction (carpet & other sound absorption materials)
  • Specialized lighting
  • Room design modifications
  • Flashing fire alarm

Instructional Accommodations:

  • Noise reduction (carpet & other sound absorption materials)
  • Use of visual supplements (projected materials, whiteboard, charts, vocabulary lists, lecture outlines)
  • Captioning or scripts for announcements, television, videos, or movies
  • Speech-to-text translation captioning (i.e., computer on desk)
  • Educational interpreter (ASL, signed English, cued speech, oral)
  • Buddy system for notes, extra explanations/directions
  • Check for understanding of information
  • Down time / break from listening
  • Extra time to complete assignments
  • Step-by-step directions
  • Note taker

Curricular Modifications:

  • Modify reading assignments (shorten length, adapt or eliminate phonics assignments)
  • Modify written assignments (shorten length, adjust evaluation criteria)
  • Pre-tutor vocabulary
  • Provide supplemental materials to reinforce concepts
  • Provide extra practice
  • Alternative curriculum
  • Evaluation Modifications:
  • Reduce quantity of tests or test items
  • Use alternative tests
  • Provide reading assistance with tests
  • Allow extra time

Other Considerations:

  • Supplemental instruction (speech, language, pragmatic skills, auditory, speech reading
  • skills)
  • Counseling
  • Sign language instruction
  • Transition / Vocational services
  • Family support
  • Deaf/Hard of Hearing role models
  • Recreational/Social opportunities
  • Financial assistance
  • Monitor progress periodically by a specialist in Deaf/Hard of Hearing