Specific Learning Disability (SLD)

IDEA definition: 

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) defines a specific learning disability as “a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations.” This disability category includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia and developmental aphasia (a type of language disorder).

The umbrella term “SLD” covers a specific group of learning issues. The conditions in this group affect a child’s ability to read, write, listen, speak, reason or do math. Here are some of the issues that could fall in this group:

Characteristics: 

  • Difficulty reading out loud
  • Poor reading comprehension
  • Struggling to write papers and essays
  • Trouble understanding lectures
  • Difficulty holding a pencil

Accommodations/Modifications:

Could be all or any of the following based on their individaul needs:

  • Presentation:
    • Provide on audio tape
    • Provide in large print
    • Reduce number of items per page or line
    • Provide a designated reader
    • Present instructions orally
  • Response:
    • Allow for verbal responses
    • Allow for answers to be dictated to a scribe
    • Allow the use of a tape recorder to capture responses
    • Permit responses to be given via computer
    • Permit answers to be recorded directly into test booklet
  • Timing:
    • Allow frequent breaks
    • Extend allotted time for a test
  • Setting:
    • Provide preferential seating
    • Provide special lighting or acoustics
    • Provide a space with minimal distractions
    • Administer a test in small group setting
    • Administer a test in private room or alternative test site
  • Test Scheduling
    • Administer a test in several timed sessions or over several days
    • Allow subtests to be taken in a different order
    • Administer a test at a specific time of day
  • Other
    • Provide special test preparation
    • Provide on-task/focusing prompts
    • Provide any reasonable accommodation that a student needs that does not fit under the existing categories

Resources:

https://ldaamerica.org/