Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic brain injury

This is a brain injury is caused by an accident or some kind of physical force.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an insult to the brain, not of a degenerative or congenital nature, but caused by external physical force that may produce a diminished or altered state of consciousness, which results in an impairment of cognitive abilities or physical functioning.


Children who sustain TBI may experience a complex array of problems, including the following:

  • Medical/Neurological Symptoms: speech, vision, hearing and other sensory impairment, decreased motor coordination, difficulty breathing, dizziness, headaches, impaired balance, loss of intellectual capacities, partial to full paralysis, reduced body strength, seizures, sleep disorders, and speech problems.
  • Cognitive Symptoms: decreased attention, organizational skills, and problem solving ability; difficulty with abstract concepts; memory deficits; perceptual problems; poor concentration, poor judgment; slowed information processing, and poor memory.
  • Behavioral/Emotional Symptoms: aggressive behavior, denial of deficits, depression, difficulty accepting and responding to change, loss of reduction of inhibitions, distractibility, feelings of worthlessness, lack of emotion, low frustration level, helplessness, impulsivity, inappropriate crying or laughing, and irritability.
  • Social Skills Development: difficulties maintaining relationships, inability to restrict socially inappropriate behaviors, inappropriate responses to the environment, insensitivity to others' feelings, limited initiation of social interactions, and social isolation.


  • Provide repetition and consistency
  • Demonstrate new tasks, state instructions, and provide examples to illustrate ideas and concepts
  • Avoid figurative language
  • Reinforce lengthening periods of attention to appropriate tasks
  • Probe skill acquisition frequently and provide repeated practice
  • Teach compensatory strategies for increasing memory
  • Be prepared for students' reduced stamina and increased fatigue and provide rest breaks as needed
  • Keep the environment as distraction-free as possible