Visual impairment, including blindness
A child who has vision problems is considered to have a visual impairment. This condition includes both partial sight and blindness. If eyewear can correct a vision problem, then it doesn’t qualify.
an impairment invision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.”
Partially Sighted: A visual impairment that adversely affects a student's educational performance even when corrected to the extent possible.
Low Vision: If someone's vision is between 20/70-20/160 and cannot be corrected, the student has moderate to low vision.
Legally Blind: From 20/200-20/400 is legally blind with severe low vision. From 20/400-20/1000 is profound visual impairment, and is very close to total blindness.
Totally Blind: The lack of light perception is known as total blindness or total visual impairment.
Changes in medium used:
- large print
- electronic text
- oral testing/scribing
Changes made in the way materials are presented
- Copies of overhead projector/smart board activities to be viewed at his/her desk as needed.
- The teacher or presenter should verbalize all information as it is written on the board or overhead.
- Information presented on the board should be in a high contrast color.
- Use a slant-board to position papers appropriately for reduced visual strain and to avoid glare.
- The computer screen should be eye level and tilted to avoid glare.
- Use recorded text as needed.
- Classroom recording of lectures/instruction by student.
- Large Print textbooks/materials.
- Braille textbooks/materials.
- Clear, dark copies of worksheets.
- Use of a reading guide to assist in keeping place while reading and completing worksheets.
- Present materials against a plain background
- Use a good contrast background and present on a contrasting tray or mat.
- Time and a half or double time
- Consideration for the student's reading/writing speed
- Consideration for time needed to use adaptive equipment
- Consideration for eye fatigue and scanning ability
Changes in the way students demonstrate learning
- Modified assignments (when appropriate and needed) to accommodate visual fatigue (extended time and/or shortened amount of assignments).
- Avoid activities requiring extensive visual scanning.
- Avoid visually cluttered materials.
- Allow students to use (bold marker, 20/20 pen, mechanical pencil, or other unique writing tool) to complete assignments.
- Use of bold line paper.
- Use of raised line paper.
- Abbreviated homework assignment (includes all concepts, just fewer items).
- Shorter written assignment.
- Oral testing.
Changes in Setting:
- preferential seating in the classroom for all films, assemblies and demonstration lessons.
- seated facing away from windows.
- permission to move about the room as needed to see information presented away from his/her desk.
Changes in the Setting: Environment
- Avoid glare in general from overhead lights. Consider placing light filters on fluorescent lights.
- Open and close doors fully (a half open door can be a dangerous obstacle).
- Eliminate unnecessary background noise. Consider isolation headphones.
- Eliminate clutter from the room, particularly in aisles and movement paths.
- Place materials in consistent places so that students know where particular items are always located.
- Preferential locker position and locks with keys vs. combination locks.
- Use of task lighting as needed.
- Based on the student's current assessment results of the student's abilities;
- Based on the student's current skills based on current assessments;
- Based on the student's emotional well-being;
- To help the student be successful; and
- After trying the use of supplementary aids and services.
- Reducing assignments so a student only completes the easiest problems;
- Altering assignments to make them easier;
- Requiring a student to learn less materials than are required by the State's academic content standards;
- Providing help to a student via hints or clues to the correct answers on assignments and tests.