Element 3 Milestones and Evidence



  I HAVE…successfully planned and implemented coherent lesson sequences aimed to engage student interest and address learning outcomes. This is demonstrated by the feedback I have received by my Cooperating Teacher during practicum on lessons I have implemented. I have also experimented with and successfully included a range of engaging and relevant resources into lessons taught in order to enhance and support student learning. I have had experience in designing and using a range of assessment to show student achievement of outcomes, demonstrated by the inclusion of two examples of Maths assessment strategies: a work sample of a traditional maths test and a maths interview with a small group of Yr 6 students. Further, I have had practice in analysing the results of student assessment and using this to identify student needs to plan for future learning experiences. One example I have included of this is the SENA assessment of a Kindergarten child, along with interpretation of student strengths and weaknesses and subsequent lesson ideas to support the child’s number development.

  I WILL…require more experience in writing assessment for specific purposes and in authentic classroom settings. I would like more practice in writing assessments which are open-ended and designed to allow students reach the “A” on the A-E grading scale. I will also aim to keep on-going records (perhaps including diagnostic tests) of student progress in future classes in order to give the students feedback, report to parents and to evaluate my teaching.  

GOAL FOR PRACTICUM: Make and use an assessment task which uses the A-E scale and use this to inform teaching.     

I NEED…more information and experience using the A-E grading scale for assessment writing used in schools. I further need more opportunity on my next practicum to observe and use assessment in both formative (ongoing) and summative (at the end) ways and have more say in this process in the class. Assessment should be used to gain a better understanding of the learners in the class (Latham et al., 2006, p. 281). Assessment is an area in teacher’s professional work which is considered to involve significant dilemmas (Groundwater-Smith et al., 2003, p. 268), and as such, I need to develop my understandings of and use of assessment in the classroom in order to overcome any difficulties in the future. With this in mind, I can take the following steps towards my goals for practicum:

  1. Revise the A-E grading scale on the NSW Board of Studies Assessment Resource Centre website. Familiarise myself with examples from the site to provide ideas for my own assessment.
  2. Talk with my Cooperating Teacher and ask to see her assessments.
  3. Design my own assessment during practicum, and mark using the A-E grade scale. Analyse the results to determine future strategies or learning experiences to meet student needs.

 I BELIEVE…the Teaching-Learning Cycle (NSW Department of Education and Training, 2008) is of great importance in the classroom. Teachers need to plan meaningful and engaging lesson sequences taking into consideration the background knowledge, interests and ability levels of students. These lessons should be implemented with use of appropriate educational resources to support student learning, as well as incorporate both formative and summative assessments which track student progress. I believe assessments should give students a range of opportunities to demonstrate what they have learnt, and the information gathered as a result of these assessments needs to be used in three main ways; firstly, to provide timely feedback to students in line with the Quality Teaching model (NSW Department of Education, 2003), secondly to inform parents of student progress, and thirdly, to be used to critically evaluate the lesson/ unit sequence and allow improvements to be made in the teacher’s planning. I believe teachers should effectively report on student’s progress to parents, as they have a right to know how their child is progressing and specific steps the teacher is using to improve their learning (Groundwater-Smith et al., 2003, p. 284).   


Element 3 Evidence 

 Annotations for the evidence

 I have included as evidence of my achievement of Element 3:

* A practicum report and lesson observation outlining my ability to PLAN and write lesson sequences which are coherent, meaningful and designed to engage students and meet syllabus outcomes. This evidence shows I have had experience during practicum writing meaningful and engaging lessons. 3.1.1, 3.1.2, 3.1.3 

* To demonstrate my knowledge and use of a range of ASSESSMENT strategies, I have included two examples of different assessment strategies for maths which I have experimented with. I have included a student worksample of a traditional pen-and-paper maths test designed by myself to test fractions, I have also included another assessment for maths in the form of an interview. This interview shows explicit links between outcomes and assessment.  3.1.5, 3.1.6, 3.1.10  

* I have also included a report written in response to the maths SENA assessment which links assessments to outcomes and shows reflection on how assessment should link to future lessons to address student needs. This shows my use of assessment to inform teaching in the future based on results, and thus shows I use the Teaching/Learning Cycle in my planning. 3.1.5, 3.1.6, 3.1.10 

Some evidence is scanned and therefore can be found under "Element 3 Evidence" on  http://anne87.wikispaces.com/


Example of SENA assessment and program evaluation: 


SENA 1 Report     By Anne Lewis 306159627Age/Year:  Kindergarten
Aspect to be developedWhere are they now?Where to next?Outcomes and indicatorsHow?Why?
Numeral identification     Level 3 (1-100).*The student can identify numbers up to 100 with ease and could identify half of the numerals from SENA 2.*One difficulty is verbalising higher numbers correctly, for instance for 263, saying “two hundred and six three”. For this reason, student has not yet achieved Level 4 of the LFIN. Level 4 (1-1000).*Recognising numbers up to 1000.*Student already in very early stages of Level 4, so consolidation of this level is necessary.*Concepts to focus on include identifying 3-digit numbers using correct terminology in association with place value recognition.NS1.1 Counts, orders, reads and represents two- and three- digit numbers. - Represent two and three digit numbers with numerals, words, pictures and objects.- Understand place value in two and three digit numbers.Activities which focus on identifying and correctly naming numerals with 3 digits. Teacher’s Role: includes introducing 3 digit numbers, planning activities for exploration of 3 digit numbers and modelling correct terminology using place value concepts.Consolidation :Jointly construct charts of hundreds, play games such as “Buzz Off” with 3 digit numbers, play BINGO with 3 digit numbers, use number expanders to write 3digit numbersThe first important concept in mathematical understanding is the identification of numerals because without this understanding numbers would not exist or have meaning. Being able to recognise and understand representations of numbers is a stepping stone into manipulating numbers with addition and subtraction and is the basis of other important maths concepts (Board of Studies, 2006, p. 14). Identifying numerals is integral to the LFIN as it is required for counting by ones and further mathematical development.
Forward number word sequence Facile (100) Level 5.*Student can count to numbers above 100 and identify the number which comes after. *Small mistakes were made in bridging the decade between 29 and 30, and missing numbers 98 and 107 in counting. Overall student demonstrated understanding of FNWS.Level 1 (SENA 2) *Counting forwards by 10’s and 100’s. *Student can already count by ones but can’t skip count forwards. *Focus on skip counting by 2’s, 5’s and then 10’s and 100’s to continue FNWS.NS1.1 Counts, orders, reads and represents two- and three- digit numbers. -Count forwards by ones, twos, fives, tens.- Identify number after a given two-digit number. Activities should emphasise number patterns found by skip counting (eg. 2, 4, 6, 8). Teacher’s Role: show number patterns on charts, model skip counting, use grouping strategies for counting (to support LFIN), and create opportunities to learn.Consolidation: Use 100’s charts to investigate number patterns, play Whisper Counting in a circle by 2s, 5s, 10s and 100s, sing songs which use skip counting.FNWS is significant as it emphasises correct sequencing of numbers and involves rational thinking such as the principles of abstraction and cardinality. Level 1 of FNWS will incorporate skip counting which will identify number patterns. Patterning is further linked to early arithmetic thinking, base 10 use and multiplication concepts (Papic, 2007). FNWS provides students with an understanding of the positions of numbers, helpful in early arithmetic.
Backward number word sequence Facile (100) Level 5.*Student can count backwards even from over 100, and can identify the number which comes before. Responses were instant, demonstrating that the student is not counting by ones to reach the answer.Level 1 (SENA 2).*Counting backwards by 10’s and 100’s. * Student focus on skip counting backwards by 2’s, 5’s, and then 10’s and 100’s.NS1.1 Counts, orders, reads and represents two- and three- digit numbers. -Count backwards by ones, twos, fives, tens.- Identify number before a given two-digit or three-digit number. Activities should focus on number patterns found by counting backwards (eg. 15, 10, 5). Teacher’s Role: make sure equal time is spent on BNWS as FNWS, make links between subtraction and BNWS.Consolidation: Use hands for BNWS by ones, use number lines for larger numbers, play games involving counting backwards. BNWS is especially important to develop in early school years as it assists in subtraction strategies such as counting backwards to find the difference between numbers. Level 1 includes skip counting by 2s, 5s and 10s, which are also important in more sophisticated written strategies suggested by the syllabus such as Empty number lines (Board of Studies, 2006, p. 47).
Subitising                                   Emergent (Level 0).*Student could identify the smaller numbers of 3 and 6, however relied on counting individual dots in his mind to guess the other cards when they were covered. This indicates student still relies on perceptual strategies and counting by ones rather than subitising to get the answer.Perceptual (Level 1).*Student recognises dice patterns instantly. * Focus on subitising numbers above 3 by familiarity with dice patterns.NES1.1  Counts to 30 and orders, reads and represents numbers in the range 0 to 20. -recognises dot pattern instantly for numbers up to 7.- can see dot patterns as both whole group and two parts (eg. Domino pattern of 4 and 5 in SENA 1).Activities which focus on recognising and making dot patterns.Teacher’s Role: assess student ability to subitise, facilitate activities, explain concept of whole group and two parts to students (with dominos).Consolidation: Play board games with dice, students brainstorm ways of representing numbers with dot patterns, use 10 frames to subitise, use dominos to explain. Subitising involves recognising patterns, which is integral to developing concepts of number relationships (Bobis, 2004, p. 125). Subitising involves quantifying the number in a group and is therefore an important aspect of numeracy (Young-Loveridge, 2002, p. 37). Significantly, subitising introduces concepts of partitioning and part-whole relationships, whereby students can use mental strategies to add without counting by ones (eg, doubles).
Early arithmetic strategies Figurative (Stage 2).*The student could complete a few of the concealed tasks in his head by counting from one, but found it difficult without visual stimulus, suggesting he is in the very early stages of figurative strategies. *Subtraction tasks were particularly difficult for the student to complete.Counting On (Stage 3).*Student demonstrated early counting on thinking when explaining his answer to Q. 50 (see SENA sheet).*Student uses larger number to count on to find answer.*Focus on “counting on” in the head to solve simple addition and subtraction problems.NS1.2 Uses a range of mental strategies and informal recording methods for addition and subtraction using one- and two- digit numbers.-counting on from larger number-counting backwards to find the difference between numbers.Activities should aim to move student from figurative strategies to more efficient counting on strategies solved mentally.Teacher’s Role: Model counting on to class, ask student to explain how they get their answers, scaffold counting on by linking to figurative strategy.Consolidation: Practise, use empty number lines to show answers, incorporate skip counting to move up in the LFIN.Being able to use mental strategies (such as counting on) to solve addition and subtraction problems, especially with numbers up to 100, is a significant skill which is used throughout life (Badham, 1996). Counting on from a larger number to find an answer is a stepping stone to more sophisticated arithmetic strategies such as using knowledge of doubles and partitioning (eg split strategy, jump strategy), which will move the student into Stage 4 Facile in EAS.
Multiplication and division Forming Equal Groups (Level 1).*Student can form 3 groups but has 3 counters in the first group and 4 in each of the other groups, which was a small mistake.*Could only work out total by counting by ones.Perceptual Counting in Multiples (Level 2).*Uses skip counting to help group multiples together (eg. 3 groups of 2 are 2, 4, 6).*Focus on more efficient strategies than counting by ones to find the total number. NS1.3 Uses a range of mental strategies and concrete materials for multiplication and division.-skip counting by 2s, 5s, 10s.- model equal groups for multiplication and division.Using activities which involve making equal groups and finding the total of the groups by skip counting.Teacher’s Role: Make it interesting and relevant with examples, relate to skip counting.Consolidation: Use concrete materials to make equal groups, use arrays to find total number. Multiplication and division are linked with early arithmetic strategies, which play a central role in how students determine numbers in groups (Wright, 2002, p. 35). The LFIN demonstrates the important transition students have from forming equal groups and using perceptual counting into work with fractions involving partitioning, which is sophisticated maths thinking.