Georgia Performance Standards

One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES ? GRADE EIGHT ? STANDARDS REVISED 08/14/2008 ? Page 1 of 9 Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved

Grade Eight

GEORGIA STUDIES

In eighth grade, students study Georgia geography, history, government, and economics. While the four strands are interwoven, ample opportunity is also provided for in-depth study of the geography of Georgia and the government of Georgia. U.S. historical events are included, as appropriate, to ensure students understand Georgia’s role in the history of the United States.  

Historical Understandings

SS8H1 The student will evaluate the development of Native American cultures and the impact of European exploration and settlement on the Native American cultures in Georgia.

a. Describe the evolution of Native American cultures (Paleo, Archaic, Woodland, and Mississippian) prior to European contact.

b. Evaluate the impact of European contact on Native American cultures; include Spanish missions along the barrier islands, and the explorations of Hernando DeSoto.

c. Explain reasons for European exploration and settlement of North America, with emphasis on the interests of the French, Spanish, and British in the southeastern area.

SS8H2 The student will analyze the colonial period of Georgia’s history.

a. Explain the importance of James Oglethorpe, the Charter of 1732, reasons for settlement (charity, economics, and defense), Tomochichi, Mary Musgrove, and the city of Savannah.

b. Evaluate the Trustee Period of Georgia’s colonial history, emphasizing the role of the Salzburgers, Highland Scots, malcontents, and the Spanish threat from Florida.

c. Explain the development of Georgia as a royal colony with regard to land ownership, slavery, government, and the impact of the royal governors.

SS8H3 The student will analyze the role of Georgia in the American Revolution.

a. Explain the immediate and long-term causes of the American Revolution and their impact on Georgia; include the French and Indian War (Seven Years War), Proclamation of 1763, Stamp Act, Intolerable Acts, and the Declaration of Independence.

b. Analyze the significance of people and events in Georgia on the Revolutionary War; include Loyalists, patriots, Elijah Clarke, Austin Dabney, Nancy Hart, Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton, Battle of Kettle Creek, and siege of Savannah.

SS8H4 The student will describe the impact of events that led to the ratification of the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

a. Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of both the Georgia Constitution of 1777 and the Articles of Confederation and explain how weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation led to a need to revise the Articles.

b. Describe the role of Georgia at the Constitutional Convention of 1787; include the role of Abraham Baldwin and William Few, and reasons why Georgia ratified the new constitution.

One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES ? GRADE EIGHT ? STANDARDS REVISED 08/14/2008 ? Page 2 of 9 Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved

SS8H5 The student will explain significant factors that affected the development of Georgia as part of the growth of the United States between 1789 and 1840.

a. Explain the establishment of the University of Georgia, Louisville, and the spread of Baptist and Methodist churches.

b. Evaluate the impact of land policies pursued by Georgia; include the headright system, land lotteries, and the Yazoo land fraud.

c. Explain how technological developments, including the cotton gin and railroads, had an impact on Georgia’s growth.

d. Analyze the events that led to the removal of Creeks and Cherokees; include the roles of Alexander McGillivray, William McIntosh, Sequoyah, John Ross, Dahlonega Gold Rush, Worcester v. Georgia, Andrew Jackson, John Marshall, and the Trail of Tears.

SS8H6 The student will analyze the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Georgia.

a. Explain the importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War; include slavery, states’ rights, nullification, Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850 and the Georgia Platform, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Dred Scott case, election of 1860, the debate over secession in Georgia, and the role of Alexander Stephens.

b. State the importance of key events of the Civil War; include Antietam, the Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the Union blockade of Georgia’s coast, Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign, Sherman’s March to the Sea, and Andersonville.

c. Analyze the impact of Reconstruction on Georgia and other southern states, emphasizing Freedmen’s Bureau; sharecropping and tenant farming; Reconstruction plans; 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the constitution; Henry McNeal Turner and black legislators; and the Ku Klux Klan.

SS8H7 The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918.

a. Evaluate the impact the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry Grady, International Cotton Exposition, Tom Watson and the Populists, Rebecca Latimer Felton, the 1906 Atlanta Riot, the Leo Frank Case, and the county unit system had on Georgia during this period.

b. Analyze how rights were denied to African-Americans through Jim Crow laws, Plessy v. Ferguson, disenfranchisement, and racial violence.

c. Explain the roles of Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. DuBois, John and Lugenia Burns Hope, and Alonzo Herndon.

d. Explain reasons for World War I and describe Georgia’s contributions.

SS8H8 The student will analyze the important events that occurred after World War I and their impact on Georgia.

a. Describe the impact of the boll weevil and drought on Georgia.

b. Explain economic factors that resulted in the Great Depression.

c. Discuss the impact of the political career of Eugene Talmadge.

d. Discuss the effect of the New Deal in terms of the impact of the Civilian Conservation Corps, Agricultural Adjustment Act, rural electrification, and Social Security.

One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES ? GRADE EIGHT ? STANDARDS REVISED 08/14/2008 ? Page 3 of 9 Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved

SS8H9 The student will describe the impact of World War II on Georgia’s development economically, socially, and politically.

a. Describe the impact of events leading up to American involvement in World War II; include Lend-Lease and the bombing of Pearl Harbor.

b. Evaluate the importance of Bell Aircraft, military bases, the Savannah and Brunswick shipyards, Richard Russell, and Carl Vinson.

c. Explain the impact of the Holocaust on Georgians.

d. Discuss President Roosevelt’s ties to Georgia including his visits to Warm Springs and his impact on the state.

SS8H10 The student will evaluate key post-World War II developments of Georgia from 1945 to 1970.

a. Analyze the impact of the transformation of agriculture on Georgia’s growth.

b. Explain how the development of Atlanta, including the roles of mayors William B. Hartsfield and Ivan Allen, Jr., and major league sports, contributed to the growth of Georgia.

c. Discuss the impact of Ellis Arnall.

SS8H11 The student will evaluate the role of Georgia in the modern civil rights movement.

a. Describe major developments in civil rights and Georgia’s role during the 1940s and 1950s; include the roles of Herman Talmadge, Benjamin Mays, the 1946 governor’s race and the end of the white primary, Brown v. Board of Education, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the 1956 state flag.

b. Analyze the role Georgia and prominent Georgians played in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s and 1970s; include such events as the founding of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Sibley Commission, admission of Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter to the University of Georgia, Albany Movement, March on Washington, Civil Rights Act, the election of Maynard Jackson as mayor of Atlanta, and the role of Lester Maddox.

c. Discuss the impact of Andrew Young on Georgia.

SS8H12 The student will explain the importance of significant social, economic, and political developments in Georgia since 1970.

a. Evaluate the consequences of the end of the county unit system and reapportionment.

b. Describe the role of Jimmy Carter in Georgia as state senator, governor, president, and past president.

c. Analyze the impact of the rise of the two-party system in Georgia.

d. Evaluate the effect of the 1996 Olympic Games on Georgia.

e. Evaluate the importance of new immigrant communities to the growth and economy of Georgia.

One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES ? GRADE EIGHT ? STANDARDS REVISED 08/14/2008 ? Page 4 of 9 Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved

Geographic Understandings SS8G1 The student will describe Georgia with regard to physical features and location.

a. Locate Georgia in relation to region, nation, continent, and hemispheres.

b. Describe the five geographic regions of Georgia; include the Blue Ridge Mountains, Valley and Ridge, Appalachian Plateau, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain.

c. Locate and evaluate the importance of key physical features on the development of Georgia; include the Fall Line, Okefenokee Swamp, Appalachian Mountains, Chattahoochee and Savannah Rivers, and barrier islands.

d. Evaluate the impact of climate on Georgia’s development.

SS8G2 The student will explain how the Interstate Highway System, Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport, and Georgia’s deepwater ports, and the railroads help drive the state’s economy.

a. Explain how the four transportation systems interact to provide domestic and international goods to the people of Georgia.

b. Explain how the four transportation systems interact to provide producers and service providers in Georgia with national and international markets.

c. Explain how the four transportation systems provide jobs for Georgians.

Government/Civic Understandings SS8CG1 The student will describe the role of citizens under Georgia’s constitution.

a. Explain the basic structure of the Georgia state constitution.

b. Explain the concepts of separation of powers and checks and balances.

c. Describe the rights and responsibilities of citizens.

d. Explain voting qualifications and elections in Georgia.

e. Explain the role of political parties in government.

S8CG2 The student will analyze the role of the legislative branch in Georgia state government.

a. Explain the qualifications, term, election, and duties of members of the General Assembly.

b. Describe the organization of the General Assembly, with emphasis on leadership and the committee system.

c. Evaluate how the legislative branch fulfills its role as the lawmaking body for the state of Georgia.

SS8CG3 The student will analyze the role of the executive branch in Georgia state government.

a. Explain the qualifications, term, election, and duties of the governor and lieutenant governor.

b. Describe the organization of the executive branch, with emphasis on major policy areas of state programs; include education, human resources, public safety, transportation, economic development, and natural resources.

c. Evaluate how the executive branch fulfills its role through state agencies that administer programs and enforce laws.

One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES ? GRADE EIGHT ? STANDARDS REVISED 08/14/2008 ? Page 5 of 9 Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved

SS8CG4 The student will analyze the role of the judicial branch in Georgia state government.

a. Explain the structure of the court system in Georgia including trial and appellate procedures and how judges are selected.

b. Explain the difference between criminal law and civil law.

c. Describe the adult justice system, emphasizing the different jurisdictions, terminology, and steps in the criminal justice process.

d. Describe ways to avoid trouble and settle disputes peacefully.

e. Evaluate how the judicial branch fulfills its role in interpreting the laws of Georgia and ensuring justice in our legal system.

SS8CG5 The student will analyze the role of local governments in the state of Georgia.

a. Explain the origins, functions, purposes, and differences of county and city governments in Georgia.

b. Compare and contrast the weak mayor-council, the strong mayor-council, and the council-manager forms of city government.

c. Describe the functions of special-purpose governments.

d. Evaluate the role of local government working with state agencies to administer state programs.

SS8CG6 The student will explain how the Georgia court system treats juvenile offenders.

a. Explain the difference between delinquent behavior and unruly behavior and the consequences of each

b. Describe the rights of juveniles when taken into custody.

c. Describe the juvenile justice system, emphasizing the different jurisdictions, terminology, and steps in the juvenile justice process.

d. Explain the seven delinquent behaviors that can subject juvenile offenders to the adult criminal process, how the decision to transfer to adult court is made, and the possible consequences.

Economic Understandings

SS8E1 The student will give examples of the kinds of goods and services produced in Georgia in different historical periods. SS8E2 The student will explain the benefits of free trade.

a. Describe how Georgians have engaged in trade in different historical time periods.

b. Explain how the four transportation systems from SS8G2 contribute to Georgia’s role in trade.

SS8E3 The student will evaluate the influence of Georgia’s economic growth and development.

a. Define profit and describe how profit is an incentive for entrepreneurs.

b. Explain how entrepreneurs take risks to develop new goods and services to start a business.

c. Evaluate the importance of entrepreneurs in Georgia who developed such enterprises as Coca-Cola, Delta Airlines, Georgia-Pacific, and Home Depot.

One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES ? GRADE EIGHT ? STANDARDS REVISED 08/14/2008 ? Page 6 of 9 Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved

SS8E4 The student will identify revenue sources for and services provided by state and local governments.

a. Trace sources of state revenue such as sales taxes, federal grants, personal income taxes, and property taxes.

b. Explain the distribution of state revenue to provide services.

c. Evaluate how choices are made given the limited revenues of state and local governments.

SS8E5 The student will explain personal money management choices in terms of income, spending, credit, saving, and investing. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES ? GRADE EIGHT ? STANDARDS REVISED 08/14/2008 ? Page 7 of 9 Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved

Reading Across the Curriculum Reading Standard Comment

After the elementary years, students are seriously engaged in reading for learning. This process sweeps across all disciplinary domains, extending even to the area of personal learning. Students encounter a variety of informational as well as fictional texts, and they experience text in all genres and modes of discourse. In the study of various disciplines of learning (language arts, mathematics, science, social studies), students must learn through reading the communities of discourse of each of those disciplines. Each subject has its own specific vocabulary; and for students to excel in all subjects, they must learn the specific vocabulary of those subject areas in context. Beginning in the middle grades, students start to self-select reading materials based on personal interests established through classroom learning. Students become curious about science, mathematics, history, and literature as they form contexts for those subjects related to their personal and classroom experiences. As students explore academic areas through reading, they develop favorite subjects and become confident in their verbal discourse about those subjects. Reading across curriculum content develops both academic and personal interests in students. As students read, they develop both content and contextual vocabulary. They also build good habits for reading, researching, and learning. The Reading Across the Curriculum standard focuses on the academic and personal skills students acquire as they read in all areas of learning.

SS8RC1 Students will enhance reading in all curriculum areas by:

a. Reading in All Curriculum Areas

•Read a minimum of 25 grade-level appropriate books per year from a variety of subject disciplines and participate in discussions related to curricular learning in all areas. •Read both informational and fictional texts in a variety of genres and modes of discourse. •Read technical texts related to various subject areas.

b. Discussing books

•Discuss messages and themes from books in all subject areas. •Respond to a variety of texts in multiple modes of discourse. •Relate messages and themes from one subject area to messages and themes in another area. •Evaluate the merit of texts in every subject discipline. •Examine author’s purpose in writing. •Recognize the features of disciplinary texts.

c. Building vocabulary knowledge

•Demonstrate an understanding of contextual vocabulary in various subjects. •Use content vocabulary in writing and speaking. •Explore understanding of new words found in subject area texts.

d. Establishing context

•Explore life experiences related to subject area content. •Discuss in both writing and speaking how certain words are subject area related. •Determine strategies for finding content and contextual meaning for unknown words One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES ? GRADE EIGHT ? STANDARDS REVISED 08/14/2008 ? Page 8 of 9 Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved

Social Studies Skills Matrices MAP AND GLOBE SKILLS GOAL: The student will use maps to retrieve social studies information. I: indicates when a skill is introduced in the standards and elements as part of the content D: indicates grade levels where the teacher must develop that skill using the appropriate content M: indicates grade level by which student should achieve mastery, the ability to use the skill in all situations A: indicates grade levels where students will continue to apply and improve mastered skills Map and Globe Skills

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9-12

1. use cardinal directions

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M

A

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2. use intermediate directions

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A

3. use a letter/number grid system to determine location

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A

4. compare and contrast the categories of natural, cultural, and political features found on maps

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5. use inch to inch map scale to determine distance on map

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6. use map key/legend to acquire information from, historical, physical, political, resource, product and economic maps

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M

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7. use a map to explain impact of geography on historical and current events

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8. draw conclusions and make generalizations based on information from maps

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9. use latitude and longitude to determine location

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10. use graphic scales to determine distances on a map

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11. compare maps of the same place at different points in time and from different perspectives to determine changes, identify trends, and generalize about human activities

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12. compare maps with data sets (charts, tables, graphs) and /or readings to draw conclusions and make generalizations

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