Unit 4 Study Guide

Chapter 12

  • Know the importance of cell division (reproduction, growth, repair)
  • Know which cells reproduce via mitotic cell division (all non-sex cells)
  • Know the main stages of mitosis (interphase, prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase)
  • Know the purpose and subphases of interphase
  • Know that mitosis (and meiosis) are the division of the nucleus, cytokinesis is the splitting of the cell
  • Know the vocabulary of mitosis (chromatids, chromosomes, centromere, centrosome, kinetechore)
  • Know the difference between cytokinesis in plants and animals
  • Know the regulation of the cell cycle (especially G1, G2 and M checkpoints)
  • Know what CDKs are
  • Know the difference between internal and external signals for cell division
  • Know why a lack of regulation of cell division leads to cancer (lack of density-dependent inhibition or anchorage inhibition)
  • Know the basics of cancer cells (benign vs. malignant.  Metastasis)

Chapter 13

  • Know the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction (meiosis vs. mitosis)
  • Know the vocabulary of meoisis (homologous chromosomes, diploid, haploid, autosomes)
  • Know that meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid
  • Know the stages of meiosis (page 232)
  • Know the differences between mitosis and meiosis, and meosis I and II. (page 234)
  • Know the significance of crossing over
  • Know the 3 factors leading to genetic variation (independent assortment, Crossing Over, Random Fertilization) and what each means
  • Know the evolutionary importance of meiosis
  • Be able to explain why offspring are not genetically identical to either parent


Chapter 14

  • Know who Gregor Mendel was and his contribution to genetics
  • Know the difference between a character (gene) and a trait (allele)
  • Know the genetics vocabulary (P, F1 and F2 generations, allele, locus, homozygous, heterozygous, dominant, recessive)
  • Know Mendel's Laws of Segregation and Independent Assortment
  • Know the difference between phenotype and genotype
  • Know how to draw Punnett Squares (monohybrid crosses, dihybrid crosses)
  • Know the multiplication and addition rules for calculating probability
  • Know the concepts of incomplete dominance and codominance
  • Know that most genes have multiple allels, and that most characters are polygenetic
  • Know the definition of epistasis and pleiotropy
  • Know how to use a pedigree (be able to tell the sex of an individual, determine if a trait is dominant or recessive, and determine genotypes of family members)
  • Know some of the more common recessive diseases (Cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs, Sickle-Cell) and dominant disease (Huntingtons)
  • Remember that a dominant trait does not mean the trait is more common, nor does the dominant trait interact with the other allele in any way


Chapter 15 

  • Know the chromosome theory of inheritance
  • Know how Morgan confirmed the link between genes and chromosomes (and discovered sex-linked traits)
  • Know the definition of linked genes
  • Know the source of recombination both for unlinked (independent assortment) and linked genes (crossing over)
  • Know the definition of a wild type and mutant phenotype and the lettering system (bb+)
  • Know that linkage maps can be created by comparing the frequency of recombination
  • Know how sex-linked genes are inherited and why sex-linked diseases are much more common in males
  • Know some of the basic sex-linked diseases (color blindness, hemophilia, muscular dystrophy)
  • Know how errors during meiosis can lead to incorrect numbers of chromosomes (aneuploidy) and how this causes Down's syndrome and other disorders
  • Know that cytoplasmic DNA and mitochondrial DNA are inherited from the mother and not in a Mendelian manner