Scientific Method
1. Experimental group - the group you are experimenting on. This group receives the independent variable.
2. Control group - the group that you will compare to the experimental group. This group does not receive the independent variable. It may receive a placebo.
3. Independent variable - the thing you are testing. It is the one thing that is different between the groups.
4. Placebo - given to the control group. Example: fake pill.
5. Hypothesis - an educated guess or solution to your problem or question.
6. Scientific method - a series of steps used to answer a question or solve a problem.
7. Theory - an explanation that is widely accepted as a possible fact or truth because it has been supported by testing.

8. milli - prefix that means 1/1000. There are 1000 millimeters (mm) in a meter (m).
9. Centi - prefix that means 1/100. There are 100 centimeters (cm) in a meter.
10. Kilo - prefix that means 1000. There are 1000 meters (m) in a kilometer (km).

11. Observation - information or facts gathered using the five senses.
12. Inference - a conclusion or opinion based on an observation.
13. Distance - the measurement or length between two points.
14. Area - how much surface an object has or takes up.
L x w
15. Volume - the amount of space taken up by matter (solid, liquid, or gas).
L x w x h
16. Mass - the amount of matter in a solid, liquid or gas. Grams, kilograms, milligrams.
17. Weight - the pull of gravity on an object.

Life Science
18. Cell - a membrane covered structure that contains all of the materials necessary for life.
19. Organism - a living thing.
20. Asexual reproduction - a single parent produces offspring that are identical to the parent.
21. Sexual reproduction - two parents that produce offspring that share characteristics of both parents.
22. DNA - a molecule found in the cells of all living things. It provides instructions for making proteins.
23. Stimulus - a change in an organism’s environment that affects the activity of the organism.
24. Unicellular organism - an organism made of one cell.
25. Multi-cellular organism - an organism made of many cells.

26. Eukaryotic cell - a cell that contains a nucleus and a complicated internal structure. Ex. Plant and animal cells.
27. Prokaryotic cell - a cell that does not have a nucleus and does not have membrane-covered organelles. Ex. Bacteria.
28. Organelle - a structure (mini-organ) within a cell, sometimes surrounded by a membrane.
29. Chromosomes - packages of coiled DNA found in the nucleus of a cell.
30. Traits - characteristics of living things.
31. Alleles - different forms of a single gene.
32. Gene - part of a chromosome that controls inherited traits.

33. Genetics - study of heredity.
34. Heredity - the passing of traits from parents to offspring.
35. Dominant gene or trait - stronger gene or trait that always shows itself.
36. Recessive gene or trait - weaker gene or trait that is hidden when the dominant gene is present.
37. Pure (homozygous) - having two genes for a trait that are the same. Ex. Purebred dogs.
38. Hybrid (heterozygous) - having two genes for a trait that are different.
39. Mitosis - eukaryotic cells reproduce this way. Offspring have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
40. Meiosis - sex cells (egg and sperm) are created this way. They have 1/2 the number of chromosomes as the original cell.
41. Genotype - the inherited combination of alleles (BB, Bb, bb).
42. Phenotype - an organism’s inherited physical appearance (black fur, white fur).
43. Mutation - changes in a gene (DNA). Can be good, bad or neutral.
44. Mutagens - anything that damages or causes changes in DNA (mutations).

Earth Science

1. Weather - the condition of the atmosphere at a particular time and place.
2. Climate - the average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time.
3. Hydrosphere - all of the water covering the Earth.
4. Atmosphere - a mixture of gasses that surrounds the Earth.
5. Lithosphere - the land or crust covering the Earth.
6. Water cycle - the continuous movement of water around the planet.
7. Evaporation - when water changes from a liquid to a gas (air).
8. Condensation - the opposite of evaporation (clouds, dew, frost).
9. Precipitation - solid or liquid water that falls from the air to the Earth. Ex. Snow, rain, sleet, hail.

10. Altitude - the height of an object above the Earth’s surface.                                                                                                                                                             

11. Air pressure - the force of air particles pushing on a surface.
12. Atmosphere - a mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth. 78-79% nitrogen.
13. Wind - moving air created by differences in air pressure.
14. Radiation (electromagnetic waves) - the transfer of energy through empty space.
15. Conduction - the transfer of heat from one material to another by direct contact.
16. Convection - the transfer of heat by the movement of a liquid or gas (fluids).

17. High pressure - more or greater pressure. Cold air usually has more pressure than warm air.
18. Low pressure - weak or less pressure. Warm air usually has less pressure than cold air.

19. Coriolis effect - causes global winds to curve. Due to the Earth’s rotation.
20. Local winds - these winds move short distances and can blow from any direction.
21. Global winds - these winds travel longer distances and travel in a specific direction.
22. Jet streams - narrow belts of high-speed winds that blow in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.
23. Sea breeze - a local wind that blows from the sea to the land during the day.
24. Land breeze - a local wind that blows from the land to the sea at night.

25. Relative humidity - the amount of water vapor in the air compared to the amount of water vapor the air can hold.                                                                     

26. Dew point - the temperature at which condensation (change from gas to liquid) takes place.
27. Psychrometer - instrument that measures relative humidity.
28. Cirrus - light, feathery, high clouds.
29. Cumulus - big, puffy clouds.
30. Stratus - clouds that form flat layers across the sky.

31. Air mass - large area or body of air that has the same temperature and amount of moisture.
32. Continental air mass - forms over land. DRY!               

33. Maritime air mass - forms over oceans. MOIST!
34. Polar air mass - forms over COLD regions, usually the poles.
35. Tropical air mass - forms over warm regions, usually near the equator.

36. Greenhouse effect - gases in the atmosphere trap heat from the sun, keeping the atmosphere warm.
37. Global warming - a rise in the average global temperature. Possibly caused by human activity.
38. Acid precipitation - contains acids from air pollution.
39. Ozone - good up high (stratosphere) bad nearby (troposphere).

40. Natural resource- any natural substance, organism or energy form that living things use.

41. Renewable resource - a natural resource that can be used and replaced over a relatively short  time.

42. Nonrenewable resource - a natural resource that cannot be replaced or that can be replaced only over thousands or millions of years.

43. Recycling - a process where used or discarded materials are treated for reuse.

44. Energy resources - natural resources that humans use to produce energy.

45. Fossil fuels - nonrenewable energy resources that form in the Earth’s crust over millions of years from the buried remains of once-living organisms.

46. Petroleum - crude oil. A liquid fossil fuel that can be burned for energy. Ex. Gasoline, jet fuel, home heating oil.

47. Natural gas - A gaseous fossil fuel. Used for heating and generating electricity. Ex. Methane, butane, propane.

48. Coal - a solid fossil fuel. Power plants burn coal to produce electricity.

49. Strip mining - rock and soil are stripped from the Earth’s surface to mine shallow coal deposits.

50. Smog - a fog or haze produced by the reaction of sunlight and air pollution.

Physical Science

1. potential energy - an object has energy because of it position. Its energy is stored or is waiting to be used.


2. kinetic energy - an object has energy because it is moving


3. force - Each push or pull. It makes objects start moving, stop moving, speed up, slow down or change direction.


4. balanced force - equal forces acting on one object in opposite directions; the motion of the object does NOT change


5. unbalanced force - a nonzero net force, which changes an object's motion


6. inertia - an object at rest will not start to move unless a force acts on it.