The following Vocabulary list is taken from the East Islip angelfire.com link
It is a wonderful source of information for Understanding Living Environment Vocabulary
Acid Rain- When pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and sulfur combine with water in the atmosphere.
Adaptation- A change that helps an organism to fit in the environment.
Air Pollution- Contamination of the atmosphere.
Amoeba- A protozoan. Single celled organism. Moves by means of flowing cytoplasm: pseudopod.
Anaerobic- With out oxygen
Ancestor- Predecessor. Some organism that came before the existing organisms.
Anomaly- Irregular. Not Normal.
Anther- Part of the stamen that contains the pollen. Male
Asexual Reproduction- Reproduction which involves only one parent.
Atmosphere- The thin layer of gases that surround earth.
Autotroph- An organism that is capable of making its own food. Ex green plants, algae, and certain bacteria.
Bacteria- Microorganisms with out a nucleus. Many bacteria can cause disease in organisms.
Balanced Condition- State of equilibrium.
Balanced State- The process of being in equilibrium.
Behavior- Actions and reaction to internal and external stimuli.
Binary Fission- Asexual reproduction where the offspring splits from the parent. The offspring has identical genetic information only smaller in size at the beginning.
Biological Control- Control of pests through the use of organisms that are natural predators, parasites, or pathogens.
Biologist- A scientist who studies living things.
Biotic- living things.
Birth- The act of offspring coming from a mother.
Blastula- An early embryonic form produced by cleavage of a fertilized ovum and consisting of a spherical layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity.
Body Plan- entire structure of an organism.
Budding- Asexual reproduction. The cell splits in two with equal genetic information but unequal amounts of cytoplasmic material.
Building Materials- proteins
Bulbs- Short underground stem, holds nourishment for the plant.
Caloric Value- The amount of heat energy from a particular substance.
Calories- Heat energy in food.
Camouflage- The ability to be disguised.
Cancer- Cells that reproduce without control. They tend to surround good living tissue.
Carbohydrates- Major source of energy. Found in fruits, nuts, grains etc..
Carbon Dioxide- Colorless odorless gas which is a byproduct of human respiration.
Carnivores- An animal that only eats meat.
Cell- basic unit of all living things.
Cell Membrane- The permeable outer layer of a cell. Allows needed materials to pass into the cell and wastes to leave the cell.
Cell Theory - States that:
- All cells come from preexisting cells.
- Cells are the basic unit of structure and function.
- Organisms are made up of one or more cells.
Cell Transport- The process of moving material in and out of cells.
Cell Wall- Provides structure for the cell. Only found in plant cells.
Cell Division- The process of dividing cells
Cellular Absorption- The process of taking into a cell. Usually though the cell membrane.
Central Nervous System- Found in vertebrates. The brain and the spinal column.
Characteristics- A feature which helps to distinguish living and nonliving things.
Chemical Energy- Energy produced from a chemical reaction.
Chemical Reaction- The process of atom reacting.
Chlorophyll- Green pigment found in the chloroplast of a plant.
Chloroplasts- Contain chlorophyll for photosynthesis. Change sunlight into energy.
Chromosomes- Genetic material which contains the genes.
Circulation- The process of transporting the blood though the body.
Classification- To put into groups. Classification of living things:
Cleavage- The process of splitting.
Climate- Weather conditions for a particular region. These weather patterns prevail year to year season to sesason.
Climax Community- A stable community with a balance of living and nonliving factors.
Cloning- Copying of cells.
Commensalism- Symbiotic relationship between two organisms. Symbiotic: both organisms benefit.
Community- Different organisms that live in the same place and time.
Competition- Two or more organisms competing for a resource.
Condensation- The process of changing a gas to a liquid. Ex. Beads of water forming on a cold glass in the summer time.
Conservation- The process to save or protect.
Consumers- Those organisms that cannot produce there own food.
Coordination- Groups of muscles working together harmoniously.
Cotyledon- The leaf portion of the seed of a plant.
Cytoplasm- Fluid material inside the cell. Contains the structures of the cell.
Daughter Cells- One of the resulting cells from cell division.
Decomposers- An organism that gets energy from breaking down dead organisms or wastes.
Dependents- Relying on something else. Dependent variable: the factor being tested.
Descendants- An organism that came from another. Trace a path of descendants.
Development- The act of growing.
Diet- The usual food of a particular organism.
Dietary- Regulated food allotment.
Digestion- The chemical and mechanical breakdown of food. Provides the body with fuel and nutrients.
Diploid- Having two sets of chromosomes. A pair. Disease- Infection. Can be caused by microorganisms.
Diseased State- The act of being diseased.
DNA- Deoxyribonucleic acid. Stores the genetic information of the cell.
Dominant- A form of a trait that masks another form (recessive) of that same trait.
Dynamic Equilibrium- Continuous change of energy always going from one form to another.
Ecology- The study of the relationship between organisms and their environment.
Ecosystem- An ecological community working together sharing resources.
Egg- Sexual reproduction. From the female parent. Must combine with the male counter part for complete development.
Elecological Succession- A change that occurs to a community over a large number of years to reach a state of balance.
Embryo- An organism that has been fertilized, anytime before birth.
Endocrine System- Regulates hormones for growth and development.
Endoplasmic Reticulum- A folded membrane within the cell that moves materials around the cell.
Energy- The ability to do work. Energy is needed for living things to carry out life processes.
Energy Pyramid- A model to show the flow of energy through the food chain. Less energy is available at each level as you move toward the top.
Environment- External physical conditions that affect the growth and development of an organism.
Environmental Degradation- Breakdown of the environment.
Environmental Factors- Factors that affect the growth and development of an organism such as weather etc…
Euglena- Single celled organism characterized by the presence of chlorophyll, a reddish eyespot, and a single anterior flagellum.
Evaporation- The process of having a liquid enter the atmosphere as a gas.
Evolution- Changes that occur over time to organisms. This can cause the change of genetic information. Certain traits can be lost.
Excretion- The process of removing wastes from an organism.
External Environment- The physical environment surrounding an organism.
Extinction- The dying out of an entire species. Such as the dinosaurs.
Fats- Nutrient that release energy. Fats are needed in the body to help with certain body functions, however, not in excess. Fat in the body is stored energy.
Feedback- The return of information.
Feeding Relationships- A relationship between organisms as to their feeding. Symbiosis, Parasitic, Commensalism etc..
Fertilization- Sexual reproduction. The combination of the egg and sperm.
Fetus- A developing embryo.
Fission- reproduction on bacteria, the bacteria divides into two having identical genetic information.
Flora/Fauna- flora- plant of a particular area. fauna- animals of a particular area.
Flower- The reproductive structure of most seed bearing plants.
Food- Essential nutrients for an organism.
Food Chain- Feeding relationship that’s transfers energy through a community. Producers to herbivores to carnivores.
Food Web- Food chains that overlap.
Fossils- Remnants of once existing organisms.
Fuel - used to produce energy. Humans- food.
Fungi- Lack chlorophyll and vascular tissue. Single or multicellular. The kingdom includes the yeasts, molds, and mushrooms.
Gametes- A sperm or egg cell with the haploid (single set ) number of chromosomes.
Gas Exchange- The trade of gases. Ex. Carbon Dioxide for Oxygen.
Generation- Grandparents, Parents, and Children. (3 Generations.)
Genes- The genetic information in the chromosomes.
Genetic Engineering- The change of an organism’s genetic material. This can be used to add or remove a variety of traits.
Genotype- The combination of or genes that represent a particular trait. “What the genes look like.”
Genetic Material - Material such as genes and chromosomes that pass on heredity information.
Germ Theory/Microbes- A theory that states: Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms / microbe- a bacterium that causes disease.
Global Warming- Greenhouse effect.
Golgi Bodies- Stacked membrane inside the cell.
Grafting- The process of attaching a stem or branch of one plant onto another plant.
Green Plants- organisms that have the ability to produce their own food from the sun light.
Growth- To develop. The process of growing.
Habitat- The natural environment in which an organism lives.
Haploid- Having a single set of chromosomes. Ex. Sperm or egg . Heat- Energy. The ability to make objects move.
Herbivores- Organisms that eat only producers (green plants)
Heredity- Information passed on through the genes.
Hermaphrodite- An organism having both male and female sex organs.
Heterotroph- A organism that can make its own food.
Heterozygous- Having two different alleles for a specific trait.
Homozygous- Having two of the same alleles for a specific trait.
Hormones- A substance released by one tissue to produce change from within. Usually transported through the bloodstream.
Hybrid- The first generation off spring from to homozygous parents with different traits.
Imbalance- Not balanced. Not in equilibrium.
Immune System- Protects from infection and disease.
Incomplete Dominance- Sharing of alleles. Both alleles are seen in the phenotype.
Infection- An invasion into an organism by a harmful microscopic pathogen.
Infectious Disease- An illness that can spread rapidly, usually through a particular region.
Infiltration- To go into. To gradually take over.
Inheritance- What has been passed down from previous generations.
Intake- To take in.
Interact- To act on one another.
Interfere- To get in the way of.
Internal Fertilization/External Fertilization- Internal happening with in the female organism. External happening outside of the female organism.
Internal Environment- The environment within the organism.
Internal Structures- The structures within the organism.
Karotype- The process of looking at ones genetic map.
Kingdom- The largest of the grouping in the classification system. The Kingdoms include: animals, plants, fungi, monera, and protist.
Leaves- Photosynthesis occurs here.
Legumes- a pod or seed used as food.
Lichen- A fungus that grows along with algae.
Life- a property that tells the difference between living and nonliving things. A time between birth and death.
Life Activities- functions such as circulation, metabolism, reproduction, growth, and response to stimuli or adaptation to the environment originating from within the organism.
Life Cycle- the time from birth to death. This time will vary for all organisms
Life Processes- functions such as circulation, metabolism, reproduction, growth, and response to stimuli or adaptation to the environment originating from within the organism
Light Energy- Energy that comes from light. The electromagnetic spectrum.
Limiting Factors- An upper limit. The top.
Living- An organism that carries out life functions.
Locomotion- The ability to move from place to place.
Matter- Anything having mass and volume. Solid, Liquid or Gas.
Mechanical Digestion- The process of breaking down food. Mechanical digestion begins in the mouth.
Medelian Genetics- Theory of genetics related to Gregor Mendel and his experimentation with pea plants. Offspring receive alleles from their parents.
Meiosis- Cell division where the daughter cell receives ½ of the genetic information (chromosomes) from the parent cell.
Metabolism- Physical and chemical processes that are carried out within a call which are necessary for life.
Metamorphosis- Incomplete And Complete- A change in the form and often habits of an animal during normal development after the embryonic stage. Metamorphosis includes, in insects, the transformation of a maggot into an adult fly and a caterpillar into a butterfly and, in amphibians, the changing of a tadpole into a frog.
Microorganisms- Organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye, but not too small to be seen with the microscope.
Microscope- Too small to be seen with the naked eye. Not too small to be seen under the microscope.
Minimum- The least. Smallest amount.
Mitochondria- “Powerhouse” An organelle in the cytoplasm with contains DNA and converts food into energy.
Mitosis- Cell division where the daughter cell receives the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
Molecule- The smallest part of a compound or element that still has its’ properties.
Multicellular- Many cells.
Muscular System- Provides for movement. Voluntary and Involuntary muscles.
Mutation- A changed gene. A trait that is not found in the parent.
Mutualism- A feeding relationship in which both organism benefit.
Natural Selection- Darwin’s theory: only the organism that adapt to the environment will survive and reproduce.
Nervous System- Reacts to internal and external stimuli.
Niche- The area of an organism within their habitat.
Nitrates- A form of nitrogen that is passed trough the food chain.
Nitrogen- A gas found in our atmosphere.
Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria- Bacteria that change atmospheric nitrogen gas into nitrogen that plants and animals can use.
Nodules- A small outgrowth. A bundle of cells.
Nonliving- not alive.
Nucleotide- In DNA and RNA. Combines with a phosphate group.
Nucleus- Control center of the cell. Directs cell activities.
Nutrients- food or other substances necessary for growth and life.
Offspring- “ Child”. The result of reproduction.
Omnivores- An organism that eats both produces and consumers. Takes in anything available.
Organ System- Groups of organs working together to perform a specific function. (ex. Circulatory system, Nervous System etc.)
Organic- Free from chemicals.
Organism- Form of life. Carries out life functions.
Organ- A group of tissues working together to perform a specific function.
Organ System- Organs working together to perform a specific function. Ovaries- The female reproductive organs.
Over-cropping- Use up the resources of the land.
Overgrazing- Letting animals feed unlimited. Leads to damage of vegetation.
Overpopulation- Over crowding. Too much of on organism for a particular area.
Oxygen- Essential element for life. Found in the atmosphere.
Ozone Destruction- Depletion of the ozone layer.
Parasitism- A feeding relationship where only one organism benefits.
Paramecium- Oval protozoan. Cilia for locomotion.
Parasite- An organism that feeds off of its host. The host provides food and shelter. One-way relationship.
Parent- An organism that produces offspring.
Pedigree Charts- “Family Tree”. A list of relations.
Phenotype- What the organism looks like. The observable traits from the genotype.
Photosynthesis- The process of making food from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide.
Physical- Things in our environment.
Physical Environment- The actual environment around us.
Physical Traits- The traits we see on an organism.
Physiologic Activities- The activities of the cell or organism.
Physiology- All the functions of a living thing or any of its parts.
Pistil- Female reproductive organ of a plant. Ovule.
Pollen- Powder produced by the anther of the plant.
Pollination- The act of transferring pollen from the anther to the stamen of the plant.
Pollutants- Wastes that contaminate the air, water or soil.
Population Control- Slow the growth of a particular population.
Precipitation- Any form of water. Rain, Snow, Hail, Freezing rain.
Prediction- A guess made about the future.
Predator- Preys on other organisms.
Pregnancy- The time during which an organism is pregnant.
Prey- The animal being hunted for food.
Producer- An organism at the bottom of the food web which can produce its own food.
Proteins- necessary nutrient for life
Punnett Squares- Shows how genes combine. Showa the probability of genotypes.
Pure Bred- An organism that will always show the same traits in its offspring.
Recessive- Hidden trait. Two recessive traits will show that trait.
Regeneration- The ability to re-grow parts to an organism.
Regulation- to keep in control.
Relationships: Competitive, Harmful, Beneficial-
Replication- To copy
Reproduction- Production of offspring.
Reproductive Success- To follow in order from parent to offspring. The gradual change of species over time.
Reproductive System- Group of organs working together to reproduce new organisms.
Resource Acquisition- To acquire new resources.
Resources- Things needed to help aid in survival.
Ribosome- Organelle on which protein is made.
Root Hairs- Increase surface area of a root to allow for maximum water absorption.
Roots- Anchor the plant. Materials are transported to the plant from the soil.
Saprophyte- Fungus or bacteria that gets its food from dead organisms.
Scavenger- An organism that feeds on dead or decaying matter. “look for food”
Seeds- ovule containing the plant embryo.
Selective Breeding- Only breeding organisms with desirable traits.
Sense- to get stimuli from the environment.
Sex-Cells- sperm or egg.
Sexual Reproduction- Reproduction involving two parents.
Skeletal System- Provides structure, protection and support for the human body. Combined with the muscular system provides for movement.
Solubility- The amount of a substance that can be dissolved.
Species- Smallest grouping in the classification system.
Sperm- Male sex cell.
Spinal Cord- Thick nerve tissue that travels from the brain down the spinal column.
Spores- Reproductive cell that does not need fertilization.
Stamen- The male reproductive organ of a flower.
Stems- Provide support for the plant.
Stigma- Receives pollen.
Stimuli- Anything an organism responds to.
Stored Energy- Potential Energy.
Sugar- Stored energy. Carbohydrates.
Sunlight- Light from the sun.
Survival- The act of staying alive.
Symbiosis- A feeding relationship where both members benefit.
Temperature- The degree of hotness.
Testes- A male reproductive organ.
Tissue- A group of cells working together to perform a specific function.
Toxic- A toxin or poison that can cause harm or even death.
Trait- Genetically determined characteristic.
Transpiration- Removal of wastes through stomata or pores of the skin.
Tropism- Movement or an organism based on external stimuli.
Tubers- Asexual reproduction. An outgrowth. Root like.
Urban Growth- Growth of a city.
Vacuole- Storage area in the cell.
Variations- Characteristic of an organism that makes it different from the species.
Vitamins- Essential for growth and development.
Waste- Unusable. Left over.
Waste Disposal- Excretory system
Water- Clear liquid necessary for life.
Water Cycle- A cyclic pattern for water.
Water Pollution- Pollution in the water.
Work- Using a force to move an object some distance.
Zygote- The cell that forms right after fertilization.