Unit 4 Study Guide

Unit 4:  Atmosphere Study GuideChapters 11 & 12

Energy in the Atmosphere

1.  Nearly _____ the energy in Earth’s atmosphere comes from the sun. 

2.  This energy travels to Earth as _____________________ waves, a form of energy that can travel through space. 

3.  The direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves without touching the object is called ________________. 

4.  Name three forms of radiation:            1.            2.            3. 

5.  Name the colors of visible light:                                      

6.  _________________________ is a form of energy with wavelengths that are longer than red light. 

7.  Which form of radiation heats the Earth’s atmosphere? _______________________ 

8.  The sun also gives off _________________________, which has wavelengths that are shorter than violet light. 

Heat Transfer

9.  The energy transferred from a hotter object to a cooler one is referred to as ___________.

10.  Heat is transferred in three ways:            1.            2.            3.  

11.  Heating air or water molecules makes them move ____________. 

12.  Example of radiation:______________________________ 

13.  The direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that is touching is called ____________________. 

14.  Example of conduction:_____________________________ 

15.  The transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid (liquid or gas) from one place to another is called ________________________. 

16.  Example of convection:______________________________ 

17.  Cloud absorption of heat, water and land absorption of heat, different colors of land absorption of heat are all reasons why the Earth’s surface is heated (CIRCLE ONE) evenly or unevenly.

 Gases in the Atmosphere

18.  Name the four major gases in the Earth’s atmosphere from the MOST abundant to the LEAST abundant:  Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor            1.            2.            3.          4.

19.  _________________________ is water in the form of gas. 

Pollution in the Atmosphere

20.  __________________________ is a change to the atmosphere that has harmful effects.

21.  Substances that cause pollution are called __________________________. 

22.  Solid particles of pollution are called _____________________________. 

23.  __________________________ is a thick, brownish haze formed when certain gases in the air react in sunlight. 

24.  Where would you find the most amount of photochemical smog?  CIRCLE ONE            A farm          A small town          A forest          A large city 

25.  Which source is the largest producer of smog?  CIRCLE ONE            Vehicle emissions     Power plant emissions     Factory emissions 

26.  What is the major chemical found in smog?_______________________ 

27.  _____________ is a form of oxygen, that results when gases react in sunlight. 

28.  Ozone has ____ atoms of oxygen. 

29.  Ozone in the ozone layer absorbs what form of radiation? __________________ 

30.  Ozone found in the ozone layer in the stratosphere protects us, but when ozone is found in the troposphere or the air close to Earth it is considered harmful and a _______________. 

31.  Which example below would be a natural harmful effect to the Earth’s atmosphere? CIRCLE the correct answer.            Cutting down trees and human caused burning of forests            Vehicle emissions            Forest fires and volcanic eruptions            Nuclear power plant emissions            Factory and power plant emissions

32.  Precipitation that is more acidic than normal is called _________________.  

33.  Effects of acid rain:            1.            2.            3. 

34.  _________________________ is a colorless, odorless gas that forms when wood, coal, oil, or gas are incompletely burned. 

35.  _________________________ is a colorless, odorless gas that is radioactive. 

36.  The __________________ is a layer of the upper atmosphere that protects people from the effects of too much ultraviolet radiation. 

37.  The trapping of heat near Earth’s surface is called the ______________________. 

38.  A theory called ________________________________ predicts that an increase in carbon dioxide will cause Earth’s average temperature to rise. 39.  What happens to the Earth if more infrared radiation is absorbed then usual?___________________________________________________________________ 

40.  Force of air pushing on all objects is ____________________________. 

41.  A ___________________ is an instrument that measures changes in air pressure. 

42.  ____________________ or elevation, is the distance above sea level. 

43.  ____________________ decreases as altitude increases. 

44.  As elevation increases, it is more difficult to breath because ___________________________________________________________________ 

45.  As altitude increases in the troposphere, the temperature __________________. 

46.  List the five main layers of the atmosphere in order from Earth to space:

            1.            2.            3.            4.            5.  

47.  The _______________________ is the inner layer of Earth’s atmosphere. 

48.  The _______________________ is the layer where most life lives. 

49.  The _______________________ contains all of the Earth’s weather. 

50.  The _______________________ contains the ozone layer. 

51.  The _______________________ is the middle layer. 

52.  The _______________________ protects Earth from being hit by meteors.

53.  The _______________________ has two parts, the ionosphere and the exosphere. 

54.  The aurora borealis, or the northern lights, and the bouncing of radio waves occurs in the ____________________. 

55.  The _______________________ is the outer layer of the atmosphere that extends into space. 

Study Materials:  This study guide, vocabulary book, vocabulary flashcards, study guide memory cards, class notes, class assignments/projects.