Unit 6 Study Guide

Unit 6:  Water Study Guide

Water is the only ___ that exists in all three states, ___, ___, and ___ on Earth.

The unique properties of water are a major factor in the ability of our planet to sustain ___.

The elements that make up a water molecule are ___ and ___.

Most of the Earth's water is salt water in the ___, ___%.  Available non-frozen, ___ water makes up less than ___%.

One side of each water molecule has a slightly ___ charge, and the other side has a slightly ___ charge.  This is why water is called a ___ ___.

Opposite charges ___.

Water molecules attract other ___ molecules.  This is called ___.

The positive side of a water molecule is attracted to the ___ side of another water molecule.  This is how water molecules "stick" together.

___ is when water molecules stick to each other.  Water is considered to be cohesive.

An ___ is made up of the living community and the non-living factors that affect it.

___ is another word for non-living.  Water supply, topography, land forms, ___ quality, ___, ___, and ___ are all considered abiotic factors in an ecosystem.

The health of an ecosystem is directly related to ___ quality.

Activites of ___ can change the abiotic components of an ecosystem.

Three examples of how humans change the abiotic factors of an ecosystem are:___ ___ ___.

A ___ is the land that water flows across or through on its way to a stream, lake, or wetland.

Areas of higher electations, such as __ or __, separate watersheds.

The three major regional watershed systems in Virginia lead to the ___ Bay, ___ ___ SOund, and the Gulf of ___.

Some factors that give watersheds their characteristics are topography, geography, soils and ___ cover.

Important functions of a wetland inlcude ___ reduction, filtering ___ and providing a home for ___.

Temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and presence of macroinvertibrates are all factors tested and monitored to assess ___ ___.

People use ___, wells, ___ and cisterns to collect water for use.

More productive and dependable farm harvests are the result of ___.

Generating electricity uses dammed water to turn ___.

Human waste dumped into rivers led to disease which lead to the development of ___ and ___ treatment plants.

Sewage and water treatment facilities were developed to prevent ___.

Water is an important resource used in power generation.  ___ plants make use of ___ energy of water as it flows through ___.

In the past, streams and rivers were often used to dispose of human ___, and open sewers wer common.

During the mid 1800's public health officials recognized the connection between ___ outbreaks and contamination of ___ water.

___ and ___ treatment have helped eliminate diseases associated with human waste.

___ are wetlands between salt water oceans and fresh water.

The largest estuary in the lower 48 states is the ___.

___ are the samller streams that drain inot bigger streams.

As a river's flow decreases in speed, more ___ settles to the bottom of the river.

Rivers and streams carry and deposit sediment.  As water flow___ in speed, the sixe of the sediment it carries decreases.

In addition to oceans, lakes, rivers, and streams water is also founed in underground rock layers called ___.

___ has the ability to absorb ___ energy witouth showing relatively large changes in ___.

Large bodies of water act to moderate the ___ of surrounding areas.

Large bodies of water (lakes, oceans) ___ heat slowly and release that ___ in the winter.  F0r this reason the climate near large bodies of water is slightly ___ than areas without large bodies or water.

Large bodies of ___ help to keep nearby climates from being too hot or cold because they absorb heat in the ___ and release it in the ___.

The ___ near the ocean is usually milder than reas more inland.

A long time ago, the Earth and its gases ___ and the seas are believed to have formed when the Earth cooled enough for ___ vapor in the atmosphere to ___.

Water (rain, ice, snow) has shaped our environment by ___ and ___ weathering rock and soil, and transporting ___.

Freezing water that breaks rock without any change in the minerals of the rock is called ___.

Physical weathering produces small ___ and ___.

Water with dissolved gases and other chemicals cause minerals in rocks to be ___ ___.  This can lead to the deterioration of the rock and is known as ___ ___.

___ ___ causes a type of chemical weathering.  Acid rain is caused by sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere from burning of coal, a ___ ___.

Properties of water include:

Water ___ when it freezes.

Water has a high ___ tension.

Ice is less ___ than water.

Cold water is more or less dense than hot water. (circle one)

___ factors in the environment are non-living.  They include:___,___,___,___,___,___, and ___.

When monitoring the quality of water, factors that are considered may include ___,___,___,___,___,___ and ___.

Water can be found in ___,___,___,___,___,___,___,___,___, and ___.

When describing a watershed's characteristics one might consider ___,___,___, and ___.

The 3 major steps in the water cycle are ___, ___, and ___.

Other than evaporation, water vapor also gets into the atmosphere through ___ from plants, ___ from animals, and the ___ of snow and ice.

Humans have indiscriminately changed the Earth in many ways, often without regard for our land or water resources.  Human activitys that have caused damage to the Earth and our water resources include ____________________________________________________________________.

Wetlands that have functioned to control ___, ___ impurities from water, and provide a ___ for wildlife have been destroyed.

Draw a picture of a water molecule.

Draw a picture of the water cycle.