English Language Arts: Reading
1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
a. Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.
b. Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by
specific sequences of letters.
c. Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.
d. Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet.
2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds
a. Recognize and produce rhyming words.
b. Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words.
c. Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.
d. Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes)
in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant, or CVC) words.* (This does
not include CVCs ending with /l/, /r/, or /x/.)
e. Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable
words to make new words.
Phonics and Word Recognition
3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word
analysis skills in decoding words.
a. Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one
letter-sound correspondences by producing
the primary sound or many of the most
frequent sounds for each consonant.
b. Associate the long and short sounds with
common spellings (graphemes) for the five
c. Read common high-frequency words by sight
(e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does).
d. Distinguish between similarly spelled words by
identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.
4. Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and
Text Types and Purposes
1. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and
writing to compose opinion pieces in which they
tell a reader the topic or the name of the book
they are writing about and state an opinion or
preference about the topic or book (e.g., My
favorite book is . . .).
2. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and
writing to compose informative/explanatory
texts in which they name what they are writing
about and supply some information about the
3. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and
writing to narrate a single event or several
loosely linked events, tell about the events in
the order in which they occurred, and provide a
reaction to what happened.
5. With guidance and support from adults, respond
to questions and suggestions from peers and
add details to strengthen writing as needed.
6. With guidance and support from adults, explore
a variety of digital tools to produce and publish
writing, including in collaboration with peers.
7. Participate in shared research and writing
projects (e.g., explore a number of books by
a favorite author and express opinions about
8. With guidance and support from adults,
recall information from experiences or gather
information from provided sources to answer a
Comprehension and Collaboration
1. Participate in collaborative conversations with
diverse partners about kindergarten topics and
texts with peers and adults in small and larger
a. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g.,
listening to others and taking turns speaking
about the topics and texts under discussion).
b. Continue a conversation through multiple
2. Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or
information presented orally or through other
media by asking and answering questions
about key details and requesting clarification if
something is not understood.
3. Ask and answer questions in order to seek help,
get information, or clarify something that is not
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
4. Describe familiar people, places, things, and
events and, with prompting and support, provide
5. Add drawings or other visual displays to
descriptions as desired to provide additional
6. Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and
Conventions of Standard English
1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of
standard English grammar and usage when
writing or speaking.
a. Print many upper- and lowercase letters.
b. Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs.
c. Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/
or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes).
d. Understand and use question words
(interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when,
e. Use the most frequently occurring
prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for,
of, by, with).
f. Produce and expand complete sentences in
shared language activities.
2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of
standard English capitalization, punctuation, and
spelling when writing.
a. Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the
b. Recognize and name end punctuation.
c. Write a letter or letters for most consonant
and short-vowel sounds (phonemes).
d. Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on
knowledge of sound-letter relationships.
Vocabulary Acquisition and use
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and
multiple-meaning words and phrases based on
kindergarten reading and content.
a. Identify new meanings for familiar words and
apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a
bird and learning the verb to duck).
b. Use the most frequently occurring inflections
and affixes (e.g., -ed, -s, re-, un-, pre-, -ful,
-less) as a clue to the meaning of an unknown
5. With guidance and support from adults, explore
word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
a. Sort common objects into categories (e.g.,
shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts
the categories represent.
b. Demonstrate understanding of frequently
occurring verbs and adjectives by relating
them to their opposites (antonyms).
c. Identify real-life connections between words
and their use (e.g., note places at school that
d. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs
describing the same general action (e.g.,
walk, march, strut, prance) by acting out the
6. Use words and phrases acquired through
conversations, reading and being read to, and
responding to texts.
Texts Illustrating the Complexity, Quality , and Range of Student Reading K: *
Over in the Meadow by John Langstaff (traditional) (c1800)*
A Boy, a Dog, and a Frog by Mercer Mayer (1967)
Pancakes for Breakfast by Tomie DePaola (1978)
A Story, A Story by Gail E. Haley (1970)*
Kitten’s First Full Moon by Kevin Henkes (2004)*
My Five Senses by Aliki (1962)**
Truck by Donald Crews (1980)
I Read Signs by Tana Hoban (1987)
What Do You Do With a Tail Like This? by Steve Jenkins and Robin Page (2003)*
Amazing Whales! by Sarah L. Thomson (2005)*
Counting and Cardinality K.CC
Know number names and the count sequence.
1. Count to 100 by ones and by tens.
2. Count forward beginning from a given number within the known
sequence (instead of having to begin at 1).
3. Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a
written numeral 0-20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects).
Count to tell the number of objects.
4. Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect
counting to cardinality.
a. When counting objects, say the number names in the standard
order, pairing each object with one and only one number name
and each number name with one and only one object.
b. Understand that the last number name said tells the number of
objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of
their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.
c. Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity
that is one larger.
5. Count to answer “how many?” questions about as many as 20 things
arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10
things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1–20, count
out that many objects.
6. Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than,
less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by
using matching and counting strategies.1
7. Compare two numbers between 1 and 10 presented as written
Operations and Algebraic Thinking K.OA
Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand
subtraction as taking apart and taking from.
1. Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental
images, drawings2, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal
explanations, expressions, or equations.
2. Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract
within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.
3. Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more
than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each
decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1).
4. For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when
added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and
record the answer with a drawing or equation.
5. Fluently add and subtract within 5.
1Include groups with up to ten objects.
2Drawings need not show details, but should show the mathematics in the problem.
(This applies wherever drawings are mentioned in the Standards.)
Number and Operations in Base Ten K.NBT
Work with numbers 11–19 to gain foundations for place value.
1. Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and
some further ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each
composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 18 = 10 +
8); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one,
two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.
Measurement and Data K.MD
Describe and compare measurable attributes.
1. Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or weight.
Describe several measurable attributes of a single object.
2. Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common,
to see which object has “more of”/“less of” the attribute, and describe
the difference. For example, directly compare the heights of two
children and describe one child as taller/shorter.
Classify objects and count the number of objects in each category.
3. Classify objects into given categories; count the numbers of objects in
each category and sort the categories by count.3
Identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles,
hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres).
1. Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and
describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as
above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to.
2. Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size.
3. Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, “flat”) or threedimensional
Analyze, compare, create, and compose shapes.
4. Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in
different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe
their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and
vertices/“corners”) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal
5. Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g.,
sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes.
6. Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes. For example, “Can you
join these two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle?”
Using a familiar context for five and six year olds, kindergartners learn about
the social studies disciplines (history, geography, civics and government, and
economics) through the lens of “Myself and Others.” Accordingly, each discipline
focuses on developing rudimentary understandings through an integrated
approach to the field.
Social Studies Content Expectations Kindergarten
H2 Living and Working Together
Use historical thinking to understand the past.
K – H2.0.1 Distinguish among yesterday, today, tomorrow.
K – H2.0.2 Create a timeline using events from their own lives (e.g., birth, crawling, walking, loss of first
tooth, first day of school).
K – H2.0.3 Identify the beginning, middle, and end of historical narratives or stories.
K – H2.0.4 Describe ways people learn about the past (e.g., photos, artifacts, diaries, stories, videos).
G1 The World in Spatial Terms
Use geographic representations to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective.
K – G1.0.1 Recognize that maps and globes represent places.
K – G1.0.2 Use environmental directions or positional words (up/down, in/out, above/below) to identify
significant locations in the classroom.
G2 Places and Regions
Understand how regions are created from common physical and human characteristics.
K – G2.0.1 Identify and describe places in the immediate environment (e.g., classroom, home, playground).
G5 Environment and Society
Understand the effects of human-environment interactions.
K – G5.0.1 Describe ways people use the environment to meet human needs and wants (e.g., food, shelter,
Civics and Government
C2 Values and Principles of American Democracy
Understand values and principles of American constitutional democracy.
K – C2.0.1 Identify our country’s flag as an important symbol of the United States.
K – C2.0.2 Explain why people do not have the right to do whatever they want (e.g., to promote fairness,
ensure the common good, maintain safety).
K – C2.0.3 Describe fair ways for groups to make decisions.
C5 Role of the Citizen in American Democracy
Explain important rights and how, when, and where American citizens demonstrate their responsibilities by participating
K – C5.0.1 Describe situations in which they demonstrated self-discipline and individual responsibility
(e.g., caring for a pet, completing chores, following school rules, working in a group, taking turns).
E1 Market Economy
Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.
K - E1.0.1 Describe economic wants they have experienced.
K - E1.0.2 Distinguish between goods and services.
K - E1.0.3 Recognize situations in which people trade.
Public Discourse, Decision Making, and Citizen Involvement (P3, P4)
P3.1 Identifying and Analyzing Public Issues
Clearly state a problem as a public policy issue, analyze various perspectives, and generate and evaluate possible
K – P3.1.1 Identify classroom issues.
K – P3.1.2 Use simple graphs to explain information about a classroom issue.
K – P3.1.3 Compare their viewpoint about a classroom issue with the viewpoint of another person.
P3.3 Persuasive Communication About a Public Issue
Communicate a reasoned position on a public issue.
K – P3.3.1 Express a position on a classroom issue.
P4.2 Citizen Involvement
Act constructively to further the public good.
K – P4.2.1 Develop and implement an action plan to address or inform others about a public issue.
K-7 Standard S.IP: Develop an understanding that scientific inquiry and reasoning involves observing, questioning, investigating, recording, and developing solutions to problems
S.IP.E.1 Inquiry involves generating questions, conducting
investigations, and developing solutions to problems through
reasoning and observation.
S.IP.00.11 Make purposeful observation of the natural world using the appropriate senses.
S.IP.00.12 Generate questions based on observations.
S.IP.00.13 Plan and conduct simple investigations.
S.IP.00.14 Manipulate simple tools (for example: hand lens, pencils, balances, non-standard objects for measurement) that aid observation and data collection.
S.IP.00.15 Make accurate measurements with appropriate (non-standard) units for the measurement tool.
S.IP.00.16 Construct simple charts from data and observations.
Inquiry Analysis and Communication
K-7 Standard S.IA: Develop an understanding that scientific inquiry and
investigations require analysis and communication of findings, using appropriate technology.
S.IA.E.1 Inquiry includes an analysis and presentation of findings that lead to future questions, research, and investigations.
S.IA.00.12 Share ideas about science through purposeful conversation.
S.IA.00.13 Communicate and present findings of observations.
S.IA.00.14 Develop strategies for information gathering (ask an expert, use a book, make observations, conduct simple investigations, and watch a video).
Reflection and Social Implications
K-7 Standard S.RS: Develop an understanding that claims and evidence for their scientific merit should be analyzed. Understand how scientists decide what constitutes scientific knowledge. Develop an understanding of the importance of reflection on scientific knowledge and its application to new situations to better understand the role of science in society and technology.
S.RS.E.1 Reflecting on knowledge is the application of scientific knowledge to new and different situations. Reflecting on knowledge requires careful analysis of evidence that guides decision making and the application of science throughout history and within society.
S.RS.00.11 Demonstrate scientific concepts through various illustrations,
performances, models, exhibits, and activities.
Force and Motion
K-7 Standard P.FM: Develop an understanding that the position and/or motion of an object is relative to a point of reference. Understand forces affect the motion and speed of an object and that the net force on an object is the total of all of the forces acting on it. Understand the Earth pulls down on objects with a force called gravity. Develop an understanding that some forces are in direct contact with objects, while other forces are not in direct contact with objects.
P.FM.E.1 Position- A position of an object can be described by locating the object relative to other objects or a background. *
P.FM.00.11 Describe the position of an object (for example: above, below, in front of, behind, on) in relation to other objects around it. *
P.FM.00.12 Describe the direction of a moving object (for example: away from or closer to) from different observers’ views. *
P.FM.E.2 Gravity- Earth pulls down on all objects with a force called gravity. With very few exceptions, objects fall to the ground no matter where the object is on the Earth.
P.FM.00.21 Observe how objects fall toward the earth.
P.FM.E.3 Force- A force is either a push or a pull. The motion of objects can be changed by forces. The size of the change is related to the size of the force. The change is also related to the weight (mass) of the object on which the force is being exerted. When an object does not move in response to a force, it is because another force is being applied by the environment.
P.FM.00.31 Demonstrate pushes and pulls on objects that can move. *
P.FM.00.32 Observe that objects initially at rest will move in the direction of the push or pull.
P.FM.00.33 Observe how pushes and pulls can change the speed or direction of moving objects.
P.FM.00.34 Observe how shape (for example: cone, cylinder, sphere) and mass of an object can affect motion.
Organization of Living Things
K-7 Standard L.OL: Develop an understanding that plants and animals (including humans) have basic requirements for
maintaining life which include the need for air, water and a source of energy. Understand that all life forms can be classified as
producers, consumers, or decomposers as they are all part of a global food chain where food/energy is supplied by plants which need light to produce food/energy. Develop an understanding that plants and animals can be classified by observable traits and
physical characteristics. Understand that all living organisms are composed of cells and they exhibit cell growth and division. Understand that all plants and animals have a definite life cycle, body parts, and systems to perform specific life functions.
L.OL.E.1 Life Requirements- Organisms have basic needs. Animals and plants need air, water, and food. Plants also require light. Plants and animals use food as a source of energy and as a source of building material for growth and repair.
L.OL.00.11 Identify that living things have basic needs.
L.OL.00.12 Identify and compare living and nonliving things.
EARTH SCIENCE Solid Earth
K-7 Standard E.SE: Develop an understanding of the properties of Earth materials and how those properties make materials useful. Understand gradual and rapid changes in Earth materials and features of the surface of Earth. Understand magnetic properties of Earth.
E.SE.E.1 Earth Materials- Earth materials that occur in nature include rocks, minerals, soils, water, and the gases of the atmosphere. Some Earth materials have properties which sustain plant and animal life.
E.SE.00.11 Identify Earth materials that occur in nature (sand, rocks, soil, water). *
E.SE.00.12 Describe how Earth materials contribute to the growth of plant life.