Maureen Hardiman EDCG 696 - Lesson Plan I
Broad Unit goals: Students will learn components of friendly, conversational and informal English and understand that we converse and write in different forms for different purposes.
Lesson Title: Creating/Breaking Down Contractions
Area/Grade Level: Grade 1- ELA
PART 1 of Lesson Plan: Using Knowledge of Students to Inform Teaching
Assumed Prior Knowledge for the Students
Fifteen out of the twenty students in Ms. Brantley’s first grade class are English Language Learners each at differing levels of English proficiency. Students are familiar with writing personal narratives, journals, and “how-to’s”. This shows that students are familiar with writing about topics that important to them, just not in letter format. I included contractions as part of the letter writing lesson to give them a head start for grade 2.
Lesson Content Objectives
Students will create contractions out of two words and break down contractions into two words. Students will use contractions when speaking and writing informally.
MA Curriculum Frameworks:
General Standard 1: Discussion- Students will use agreed upon rules for informal and formal discussions in small and large groups.
1.1: Follow agreed-upon rules for discussion (raising one’s hand, waiting one’s turn, speaking on at a time).
General Standard 2: Questioning, Listening, and Contributing- Students will pose questions, listen to ideas of others, and contribute their own information or ideas in group discussions.
2.1: Contribute knowledge to class discussion.
General Standard 5: Structure and Origins of Modern English- Students will analyze standard English grammar and usage and recognize how its vocabulary has been developed and influenced by other languages.
5.3: Indentify correct capitalization for names and places
5.4: Identify appropriate end marks
General Standard 20: Consideration of Audience and Purpose-Students will write for different audiences and purposes.General Standard 21: Revising- Students will demonstrate improvement in organization, content, paragraph development, level of detail, style, tone, and word choice (diction) in their compositions after revising them.
General Standard 23: Organizing Ideas in Writing- Students will organize ideas in writing in a way that makes sense for their purpose.
23.1: Arrange events in order when writing or dictating.
23.2: Arrange ideas in a way that makes sense.
LANGUAGE ObjectivesSpecific Lesson Language Objectives
i.e. What language skills will ELLs learn as the consequence of the lesson??
ELLs will continue to learn different components of conversational English in speaking and writing.
MA English Language Proficiency Benchmarks and Outcomes (ELPBO):
R.5: Informational/Expository Text-
Students will identify and analyze purposes, structures, and elements of nonfiction English texts.
R.5-#4: Use knowledge of common organizational structure (chronological order) to determine meaning of text (link to ELA 13.8).
IEP/IFSP Objectives, Benchmarks or Specialized Instruction addressed within lesson
By the end of the academic year *Blank* will be able to form letters appropriately and write within the lines. *Blank* will also revise simple sentences based on teacher feedback.
Describe how you incorporate the SIOP features below that are appropriate for this lesson.
|Adaptation of content The list of contractions in which students are to extend and contract will be shortened for ELLs and those with disabilities, and will be limited to the most commonly used contractions.||Modeling Teacher will model“how to” make a contraction.teacher will teach students The ‘Contraction Song’ using music to help students learn the concept and rules of contractions.||Whole class A whole class mini-lesson demonstrate how to create contractions.students will listen to, learn, and sing The‘Contraction Song’|
|Links to background Students will be able to draw upon their previous experience with simple conversational English in which they used contractions.||Guided practice After the mini-lesson, students will remain together as a group and practice creating contractions orally.||Small groups Those students that were found to need additional help (based on participation in whole group) will meet in a small group for additional teacher instruction.|
|Links to past learning Students will be able to draw upon their previous skills writing “How-to’s”||Independent practice Students will work independently creating contractions out of two words using index card combinations.||Partners Students will pair up and work together on creating contractions, allowing for peer support to occur|
|Strategies incorporated Use questioning which allows students to think and respond. Using music as away of teaching (The Contraction Song).||Comprehensible input Use vocabulary that is familiar to students while giving direction orally, in writing, and with diagrams. Creating sentences that use both two words and a created contraction, asking students to decide whether the sentence still has the same Meaning.||Independent Students will orally share the contractions they created on the poster|
|INTEGRATION OF PROCESSES||APPLICATION||ASSESSMENT|
|Reading Students will read individual words, form contractions, and read contracted word.||Hands-on Students will use post-its to manipulate the two word combinations and apostrophe’s to form contractions||Individual Students are assessed using their individual writing pieces of created contractions.|
|Writing Students will write contractions from the two existing words provided by teacher.||Meaningful Form contractions from their own word combinations and ideas and use them during oral practice and in their letter writing||Group Students will work in collaborative groups to create contractions(with their index cards), they are authentically assessed orally|
|Speaking Students will say contractions aloud and use them in practice conversations||Links to objectives The objective is to form contractions||Written Students are authentically assessed in their writing, creating of contractions and breaking down contractions.|
|Listening Student will listen and decide if the newly formed contraction has the same meaning as the original two words||Promotes engagement by using their own writing which will contain contractions or two word combinations that can be contracted||Oral Students read aloud the contractions they created using the two word combinations provided by the teacher|
PART 2 of Lesson Plan: Planning Assessments to Monitor & Support Student Learning
Assessment: Actual evidence of student outcomes:
Through informal, oral questions, students will be authentically assessed. Students will be asked to “think out loud” so their understanding of concepts can be assessed. Students will also be assessed in their groups while working collaboratively to build and break down contractions using index cards and posters.
PART 3 of Lesson Plan: Planning Focused, Sequenced Instruction Key Vocabulary
*See list of contractions following the lesson plan.
Mini-lesson and Teacher Modeling- A chart with three columns will be created, showing students common words in the first two columns and a third column in which the contraction can be created.
A class discussion will ensue explaining and modeling how contractions are created, emphasizing the need for an apostrophe and abbreviation of the original words.
Students will listen to, learn, and sing The Contraction Song (*see following contractions). This song helps students to learn the rules of contractions and includes some common contractions within the song.
Each student will have the opportunity to figure out the contraction of the two word combination.
Students will be provided with index cards in which to write the contraction and place it in the third column.
Students will also be asked to break down a contraction into its two original words.
Contractions and breaking down of contractions by using the two original words and then the contraction in a sentence to demonstrate that the sentence still has the same meaning whether the two words or the apostrophe are used.
Small groups will form for students to work together.
Teacher/student 1:1 conferencing will allow for assessment of student’s understanding of creating and using contractions.
Student’s will be asked to practice creating contractions and breaking them down at home and will be provided with a work sheet to do so.
Additional Accommodations for Specific Diverse Learners
Using a Universal Design for Learning (UDL) approach, explain accommodations that you have made to the lesson for students within your classroom who have a variety of disabilities.
- Alan, the dyslexic child, will benefit from repeated opportunity to practice letter and word ordering. The first word of the contraction will be given first each time showing the order.
· Betty, who has a visual impairment, will benefit from being seated in the front of the class, large print, and rich descriptions provided by the teacher. Teacher will describe every step of what she is doing.· Camden, the LD NOS child, will benefit from 1:1 instruction and support. Teacher will sit with him while explaining and demonstrating how to create contractions. Student will be given fewer and more familiar words to contract and extend.· Dick, the ADD/HD child, can be designated as the teacher’s helper in order to help keep him focused on the tasks at hand. He will be asked to assist teacher in distributing and collecting materials. Bibliography
Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESE). (2008).
Current Curriculum Frameworks- ELA. Retrieved on June 5, 2010, from
Wilson (1988), The Contraction Song. Retrieved on June 5, 2010, from
http://web.archive.org/web/20061010013735/http://220.127.116.11/read/contractsong.pdf (*was unable to find additional information for this song)
*The connection between contractions and friendly letter writing becomes apparent in lesson # 3 – Revising. Students will be asked to recognize when a contraction could take the place of two words such as ‘have not’, etc. It will be explained how informal, friendly letter writing and speaking often uses contractions.
List of Contractions:
|he'd||he had; he would|
|he'll||he will; he shall|
|he's||he is; he has|
|I'd||I had; I would|
|I'll||I will; I shall|
|she'd||she had; she would|
|she'll||she will; she shall|
|she's||she is; she has|
|that's||that is; that has|
|there's||there is; there has|
|they'd||they had; they would|
|they'll||they will; they shall|
|we'd||we had; we would|
|what'll||what will; what shall|
|what's||what is; what has|
|where's||where is; where has|
|who's||who had; who would|
|who'll||who will; who shall|
|who's||who is; who has|
|you'd||you had; you would|
|you'll||you will; you shall|
The Contraction Song
(to the tune of "Mary Had A Little Lamb")I'm the first word; don't change me!
Don't change me, don't change me.
I'm the first word; don't change me!
Oh, no, just let me be. When you change the second word,
Second word, second word,
When you change the second word,
A shorter word you'll see. Certain letters are taken out,
Taken out, taken out.
Certain letters are taken out.
One word will remain. Apostrophe will fill that space,
Fill that space, fill that space.
Apostrophe will fill that space,
The rest will stay the same. Can't and couldn't, isn't, too.
Isn't, too, isn't, too,
Won't and I've and let's, it's true,
Contractions every one. I'm and she's and you're and he'd,
You're and he'd, you're and he'd,
Wouldn't, didn't, we'll and she'd,
Good! And now we're done.