Biology January Final Review

2012-2013 Biology Review Sheet for Semester 1 Final Exam (January 2012)

NOTE:  This is a guide only!  This SHOULD be used to study for your final, but should not be the ONLY source you use to study from.  Look at your notes, your worksheets, your labs, your projects...  If you wish to go over any old tests and answers, make and keep and appointment with Ms. LaSovage.  STUDY!  This test will be worth 10% of your grade. Please spend some time studying in a way that fits your learning style!


Unit 1:  Scientific method, graphing and experimental skills (and intro to Biology)

Reference: Chapter 1               Labs/Activities:  Isopod Lab,

  1. What is the definition of Biology?  What are the root words?
  2. What are the five characteristics of life?
  3. What does it mean for an organism to be unicellular?  What does multicellular mean?
  4. What is an independent variable?  How can you find it in an experiment?
  5. What is a dependent variable?  How do you know which it is in an experiment?
  6. What are controlled variables or variables held constant (and why do we need them)?
  7. What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative data?
  8. What is the difference between an observation and an interpretation?
  9. Make up or find an example of a lab experiment.  Identify the I.V., D.V. and controlled variables.
  10. What distinguishes the scientific method from just random experimenting? 
  11. What is the backbone of the scientific method?
  12. What is a hypothesis? (Do not say an educated guess!)
  13. Discuss each component of “TMS” and why each is important to a good experiment.
  • Test and Control
  • Multiple Trials
  • Same Conditions         
  1. What are the characteristics of life? (There are 5)
  2. What is a stimulus and what is a response?

Unit 2:  Ecology, Cycles and Relationships

Reference: Chapter 2, 3           Labs/Activities:  Oh Deer, Population Project,

  1. What is an ecosystem?  What three things need to be in a definition of it?
  2. What is the difference between abiotic and biotic factors?
  3. What is the biosphere?
  4. What is a community, what is a population, and how are they different?
  5. What is a habitat, what is a niche, and how are they similar and different?
  6. What happens when niches overlap?
  7. When is competition most intense?
  8. What is the difference between a food web and a food chain?
  9. What is a producer? What are synonyms for this word?
  10. Where do producers get their energy?
  11. What is a consumer?  What are other names for producers?
  12. What is the difference between a C1 and a C2 and a C3?  Give examples.
  13. What is a trophic level and how much energy is lost between trophic levels, at minimum?
  14. What are energy pyramids and what do they represent?
  15. What is a decomposer?  How is that different and similar to a scavenger?
  16. What does symbiosis mean, with a literal translation?
  17. a. Define and give examples of mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.
  18. b. Classify each of the above as “help-help,”  “help-harm” and “help-no change.”
  19. What is the competitive exclusion principle?  (extended learning for advanced students)
  20. What affects how large a population can get?
  21. What is the difference between a J and S shaped curve?
  22. Describe carrying capacity.  What shape graph demonstrates it?
  23. What is exponential growth?   Under what conditions will it occur?
  24. Do humans have a carrying capacity?  Explain your position.
  25. What are negative consequences of overpopulation?
  26. What is the difference between primary and secondary succession.
  27. What are pioneer species? Give examples
  28. What else changes between succession stages besides plants?  List at least 3 additional things.
  29. What is the intermediate disturbance hypothesis?  (extended learning for advanced students)

Unit 3: Cell chemistry and Organic Compounds (including enzymes)

Reference: Chapter 6               Labs/Activities: Jello Lab

  1. What is the center of an atom called?
  2. What is the difference between a compound and a mixture?
  3. What is a covalent bond?
  4. How many bonds does carbon make?
  5. What are single bonds, double bonds and triple bonds?
  6. What is a chemical equation and where are the reactants and products?
  7. What are the 4 major macromolecules in our body?
  8. What elements are in each of these?
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic Acids
  1. What are the monomers for each of these?
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic Acids
  1. What are examples of each of these?
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic Acids
  1. What are examples of polysaccharides?
  2. What carbohydrates can we digest?  Which can we not digest them?
  3. What are functions/uses of each of these?
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic Acids
  1. What is important to know about enzymes? 
  2. What is the most important thing about an enzyme?
  3. What are enzymes like?
  4. What do these terms mean?  Enzyme, catalyst, substrate, product, active site, denature, activation energy

Anything in the preceding list of units should be familiar.  Please review the concepts, organize your notes, refer to the chapters and study.  The final exam is shortly after returning from winter break.


Please review or research the items in this section over the break.  We did not cover them extensively in class, but you need to have background or basic knowledge of the concepts.  Relevant chapters from your textbook are shown, but other resources are also helpful.  We will review essential information after break, but you should come in well-prepared.




Unit 4: Cells, Cell Theory and Parts of the Cell

Unit 5: The Cell Membrane and Active and Passive Transport (including osmosis)

Reference: Chapter 7 and 8   Labs/Activities: Clay modeling, full body, egg lab

  1. What are the 3 parts of the cell theory?
  2. What three things does a cell, any cell, need to be a cell?
  3. Compare and contrast eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells with a Venn diagram or T-chart.
  4. Describe the function(s) and location of the following organelles and be able to recognize them in a diagram
  1. Nucleus
  2. ER (smooth and rough)
  3. Chloroplasts
  4. Mitochondria
  5. Vacuole
  6. Cytoplasm
  7. Lysosome
  8. Nucleolus
  9. Ribosome
  10. Golgi body
  11. Microtubules
  12. Centrioles
  13. Cell Membrane
  14. Cell Wall
  15. Other?
  1. What cell part is responsible for compounds entering and leaving of the cell?
  2. What does semi-permeable mean?
  3. What are the structures of the plasma membrane?  (at least four)
  4. Sketch the plasma membrane, cartoon detail style.
  5. Describe a phospholipid.
  6. What are the parts of the plasma membrane and what does each do?
  7. What does each structure of the plasma membrane do?
  • Phospholipid bilayer
  • Protein
  • Cholesterol
  • Carbohydrate

Plasma membrane help:

  1. Our model for the plasma membrane called the “fluid mosaic” model.  Why?

Membrane fluidity:

  1. What does structure have to do with function?
  2. What is diffusionVisual hint:
  3. What is facilitated diffusion?
  4. What is osmosis?
  5. What is active transport
  6. What are two ways is active transport is different than passive transport?

Transport help:

  1. What are endocytosis and exocytosis and how do they work?  Draw one in cartoon form.

Phagocytosis and digestion, a form and purpose of endocytosis:

  1. What happens to a cell in a hypotonic solution?  Provide an example from a lab or internet.
  2. What happens to a cell in a hypertonic solution?  Provide an example from a lab or internet.
  3. What happens to a cell in an isotonic solution
  4. What is dynamic equilibrium?

Images and help:


And this:  Note: The dog is not really drinking salt water. Pets should only be given fresh water.


See you in January!