Organization of the Human Body
Read: “Think about it” on page 862
Read: “Organization of the Body” page 862
Organization of the Human Body
Cells- The basic structure & function of all living things.
Tissues-A group of cells that perform a single function.
Organs-A group of different types of tissues working together to perform a single function.
Organ Systems- A group of organs that work to perform closely related functions.
See Figure 30-2
The Human body is made up of 11 body systems:
Types of Tissue
See Fig. 30-1
There are 4 different types of tissues in the Human Body:
Homeostasis: describes the relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain despite changes in internal and external environments.
Examples of Homeostasis: maintaining a fairly constant temperature…if you are too cold, you shiver to warm up and if you are too hot you sweat to cool down.
How does the liver work in maintaining homeostasis in the body?
(Read pg. 867)
Complete 30.1 Worksheet which is due at the end of class
Food & Nutrition
Activating Prior knowledge
Why do Humans need to eat?
What are some nutrients that your body needs?
What does the term “balanced diet” mean?
Read “Think about it” on page 868
Read “Food and Energy” on page 868
Food & Energy
Energy- The energy contained in food can be measured by burning the food. The food is converted to heat which is measured in calories. A calories equals the amount of energy needed to raise 1g of water by 1 degree Celsius.
Raw Materials- food supplies the raw materials used to build and repair the tissues of the body.
Nutrients are the substances in food that supply energy and raw materials that your body uses for growth, repair and maintenance,
Nutrients include: Water, Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins, Vitamins & Minerals.
Water: is a necessity of every cell in the body. Many processes & chemical reactions take place in water. Blood & many other bodily fluids are made up of water.
Carbohydrates: (Two types Simple & Complex) are the major energy source for the body. Carbs can be found in fruits, vegetables, sugars and grains.
Fats: are important in a balanced diet and help the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins. Fat are part of the cell membrane, nerve cells, certain hormones and provide insulation for the body as a stored source of energy. (Two types saturated & unsaturated) See Fig. 30-6
Proteins: supply raw materials for growth & repair of skin & muscles. Good sources of protein include fish, meat, eggs and milk. Humans get 8 essential amino acids by eating proteins, the remaining 12 we are able to synthesize.
Vitamins: are organic molecules that the body needs in small amounts, they aid in the body performing chemical reactions. (Two types fat soluble & water soluble). A diet lacking vitamins can lead to health problems.
Minerals: are Inorganic nutrients that the body needs in small amounts.
See Figure 30-8 on page 872 for examples of minerals essential in the human diet.
Read: “Nutrition & a balanced diet” on page 872-873
See Diagram on the follow link http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-1Itd5V3_M8I/ToNkw38tElI/AAAAAAAAAmI/7eI_kbFJms0/s1600/digestive+system.gif
Complete 30.2 Handout and turn in before the end of class
Activating Prior Knowledge
What are the functions of the Digestive system?
What occurs during digestion?
How are nutrients absorbed and wastes eliminated?
Read “Think about it” and “Functions of the Digestive System” on page 87
Ingestion: The 1st step in digestion, the process of putting food in your mouth. The mouth is considered the opening to the digestive tract.
Digestion: Is defined as the breaking down of food. There are two types of digestion; they are Chemical digestion and Mechanical digestion.
Mechanical Digestion: is the chewing, grinding and churning of food.
Chemical Digestion: is when chemicals and enzymes break down food.
Absorption: Once food is broken down into small molecules it can be absorbed by the cells in the small intestine.
Elimination: The digestive system cannot absorb all materials, therefore waste is removed from the body. Solid wastes leaves the body as feces and liquid wastes leaves the body as urine.
Digestion in The mouth
Read: “The Process of Digestion” on page 876
Mouth: Chewing by teeth begins mechanical digestion in the mouth. Saliva in the mouth begins Chemical digestion.
Teeth: are anchored in the mouth by the bones in the jaw and are protected by a layer of mineralized enamel. Teeth tear and grind food to make it easier to swallow. See Figure 30-11
Saliva: keeps the mouth moist and contains an enzyme called Amylase. This enzyme begins to break down starches. Saliva also lubricates the esophagus to make food easier to swallow.
The esophagus connects to the mouth and consists of a long hollow muscular tube.
The esophagus moves food downward in a wave-like motion called “peristalsis”. Food in the esophagus is called a bolus and enters the stomach. (See Figure 30-12)
Digestion in the Intestines
See Figure 30-14 Copy this chart into your class notes. (Effects of Digestive Enzymes)
See Figure 30-15 “The Digestive System
Absorption & Elimination
Read “Absorption & Elimination” page 880-881”
See Figures 30-16 and Figure 30-17
Complete C. 30.3 Handout
Using a pencil, draw and label the parts of the Digestive System, starting in the mouth (Oral Cavity) through to the rectum). Color and label the parts and organs of the digestive system. Use the figure on page 879 as your guide.
You will be graded on the accuracy of you drawing, meaning you must draws parts where they belong.