Chapter 30 Lecture Notes

Chapter 30.1
Organization of the Human Body


Define Vocabulary

Epithelial tissue

Connective tissue

Nervous tissue

Muscle tissue


Feedback inhibition


Read: “Think about it” on page 862

Read: “Organization of the Body” page 862

Organization of the Human Body


Cells- The basic structure & function of all living things.

Tissues-A group of cells that perform a single function.

Organs-A group of different types of tissues working together to perform a single function.

Organ Systems- A group of organs that work to perform closely related functions.


See Figure 30-2

The Human body is made up of 11 body systems:


Nervous System

Integumentary System

Immune/Lymphatic System

Muscular System

 Skeletal System

Respiratory System

Digestive System

Excretory System

Endocrine System

Reproductive System

Circulatory System

Types of Tissue
See Fig. 30-1


There are 4 different types of tissues in the Human Body:

1.Epithelial tissue- makes up skin & the lining of your stomach
2.Connective tissue- e.g. Fat, bones & blood support & connect the body.
3.Nervous tissue- are neurons which carry signals throughout the body.
4.Muscle tissue- responsible for movement, both voluntary & involuntary.

Homeostasis: describes the relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain despite changes in internal and external environments.


Examples of Homeostasis: maintaining a fairly constant temperature…if you are too cold, you shiver to warm up and if you are too hot you sweat to cool down.

How does the liver work in maintaining homeostasis in the body?

 (Read pg. 867)


Complete 30.1 Worksheet which is due at the end of class

Chapter 30.2
Food & Nutrition


Define Vocabulary







Activating Prior knowledge


Why do Humans need to eat?

What are some nutrients that your body needs?

What does the term “balanced diet” mean?

Read “Think about it” on page 868

Read “Food and Energy” on page 868

Food & Energy

 Energy- The energy contained in food can be measured by burning the food. The food is converted to heat which is measured in calories. A calories equals the amount of energy needed to raise 1g of water by 1 degree Celsius.

Raw Materials- food supplies the raw materials used to build and repair the tissues of the body.



Nutrients are the substances in food that supply energy and raw materials that your body uses for growth, repair and maintenance,

Nutrients include: Water, Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins, Vitamins & Minerals.

Water:  is a necessity of every cell in the body. Many processes & chemical reactions take place in water. Blood & many other bodily fluids are made up of water.

 Carbohydrates: (Two types Simple & Complex) are the major energy source for the body. Carbs can be found in fruits, vegetables, sugars and grains.

Fats: are important in a balanced diet and help the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins. Fat are part of the cell membrane, nerve cells, certain hormones and provide insulation for the body as a stored source of energy. (Two types saturated & unsaturated) See Fig. 30-6

Proteins: supply raw materials for growth & repair of skin & muscles. Good sources of protein include fish, meat, eggs and milk. Humans get 8 essential amino acids by eating proteins, the remaining 12 we are able to synthesize.

Vitamins: are organic molecules that the body needs in small amounts, they aid in the body performing chemical reactions. (Two types fat soluble & water soluble). A diet lacking vitamins can lead to health problems.

Minerals: are Inorganic nutrients that the body needs in small amounts.

See Figure 30-8 on page 872 for examples of minerals essential in the human diet.

Read: “Nutrition & a balanced diet” on page 872-873

See Diagram on the follow link


Complete 30.2 Handout and turn in before the end of class




Define Vocabulary

Mechanical digestion

Chemical digestion







Small intestine


Large Intestine


Activating Prior Knowledge

 What are the functions of the Digestive system?

What occurs during digestion?

How are nutrients absorbed and wastes eliminated?

Read “Think about it” and “Functions of the Digestive System” on page 87



Ingestion: The 1st step in digestion, the process of putting food in your mouth. The mouth is considered the opening to the digestive tract.

Digestion:  Is defined as the breaking down of food. There are two types of digestion; they are Chemical digestion and Mechanical digestion.

Mechanical Digestion: is the chewing, grinding and churning of food.

Chemical Digestion: is when chemicals and enzymes break down food.

 Absorption: Once food is broken down into small molecules it can be absorbed by the cells in the small intestine.

Elimination: The digestive system cannot absorb all materials, therefore waste is removed from the body. Solid wastes leaves the body as feces and liquid wastes leaves the body as urine.

Digestion in The mouth

 Read: “The Process of Digestion” on page 876

Mouth: Chewing by teeth begins mechanical digestion in the mouth. Saliva in the mouth begins Chemical digestion.

Teeth: are anchored in the mouth by the bones in the jaw and are protected by a layer of mineralized enamel. Teeth tear and grind food to make it easier to swallow. See Figure 30-11

Saliva: keeps the mouth moist and contains an enzyme called Amylase. This enzyme begins to break down starches. Saliva also lubricates the esophagus to make food easier to swallow.


The Esophagus

 The esophagus connects to the mouth and consists of a long hollow muscular tube.

The esophagus moves food downward in a wave-like motion called “peristalsis”. Food in the esophagus is called a bolus and enters the stomach. (See Figure 30-12)


Digestion in the Intestines

 See Figure 30-14 Copy this chart into your class notes. (Effects of Digestive Enzymes)

See Figure 30-15 “The Digestive System


Absorption & Elimination

 Read “Absorption & Elimination” page 880-881”

See Figures 30-16 and Figure 30-17



Complete C. 30.3 Handout

 Using a pencil, draw and label the parts of the Digestive System, starting in the mouth (Oral Cavity) through to the rectum). Color and label the parts and organs of the digestive system. Use the figure on page 879 as your guide.


You will be graded on the accuracy of you drawing, meaning you must draws parts where they belong.