Project Procedures and Outcomes

Tonya Johnson

ENVT. 601 Fall 2012

Grade 8 Science Project

Duration:  Approximately 3 days, Students will use class time and prior to and after school to collect data.

Inquiry: Emission pollution will be at its highest in the morning and late evenings because of the increase in traffic.

Objective: Students will investigate whether or not emission pollution is at its highest when there is an increase in traffic.

Vocabulary words: Pollutant gasses, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides

The materials required for this science fair project:
- 1 highway route with a speed limit of at leaset 90km/h
- 1 video camera mounted on an adjustable stand
- sufficient video tape or memory cards
- 1 elevated location to set up the camera and to film the traffic
- 1 stopwatch

Procedure:

  • Students will use the independent variable is the amount of time allotted for monitoring the passing vehicles, the dependent variable then becomes the average vehicle speed,  volume of traffic and the rate of the traffic flow.
  • The recording is scheduled for 7:30 am and again afterschool at 4:00pm.
  • From the video camera the recordings will take place monitoring the rate of speed and the time taken by vehicles to drive 200 meters. This data will be recorded using an excel spreadsheet.
  • Speed = 60 x 200m/  (time for 200 m in minutes)
  • Traffic volume (the amount of vehicles)
  • Traffic flow (continuous movement)
    • Traffic speed
    • speed between 55 and 75 km/hour (most efficient with the least amount of emission)
      other speeds (less efficient and result in higher emissions)
       
    •  Traffic volume
       
    • moderate traffic flow (less vehicles on the road and less emission)
       heavy traffic flow (more vehicles on the road and more emission)
       
    • Traffic flow
       
    • smooth flowing traffic (consumes less fuel and less emission)
       
    • 2- start-stop traffic (consumes more fuel and more emission)

 

  • A pollution index for each time slot is calculated by adding up the scores for all three sections (speed, volume and flow).

 

Example of how students data should be displayed.

The results showed that pollution emitted by vehicles will be highest during peak hours between 6am and 9am and from 6pm to 9pm, as evidenced by the total score (pollution index).

 

Condition

Time window and traffic observation

Numerical estimation of pollution

6am-9am

9am-12pm

12pm-3pm

3pm-6pm

6pm-9pm

9pm-12am

6am-9am

9am-12pm

12pm-3pm

3pm-6pm

6pm-9pm

9pm-12am

Speed km/h

35

73

88

71

25

84

2

1

2

1

2

2

Volume

Heavy

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Heavy

Moderate

2

1

1

1

2

1

Flow

Start-stop

Smooth

Smooth

Smooth

Start-stop

Smooth

2

1

1

1

2

1

Total

6

3

4

3

6

4

The chart below represents the results of our science project.

Students will create a chart based on the information observed and evaluated.  X-axis will represent time and Y-axis will represent pollution level.

 

 

 

 

 

Conclusion:

Based on students observation and research they will be able to write a report of information to determine when pollution is the highest.

 

References

Air quality – vehicle emissions and air quality - http://www.deq.state.id.us/air/prog_issues/pollutants/vehicles.cfm

Vehicle emissions control - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vehicle_emissions_control

http://www.all-science-fair-projects.com/project1400_118_3.html