Classroom Resources

June 12th, 2018


There are eight parts of speech in the English language: noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. The part of speech indicates how the word functions in meaning as well as grammatically within the sentence. An individual word can function as more than one part of speech when used in different circumstances. Understanding parts of speech is essential for determining the correct definition of a word when using the dictionary.


  • A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea.

man... Butte College... house... happiness

A noun is a word for a person, place, thing, or idea. Nouns are often used with an article (theaan), but not always. Proper nouns always start with a capital letter; common nouns do not. Nouns can be singular or plural, concrete or abstract. Nouns show possession by adding 's. Nouns can function in different roles within a sentence; for example, a noun can be a subject, direct object, indirect object, subject complement, or object of a preposition.

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my!

See the TIP Sheet on "Nouns" for further information.


  • A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.

She... we... they... it

A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun. A pronoun is usually substituted for a specific noun, which is called its antecedent. In the sentence above, the antecedent for the pronoun she is the girl. Pronouns are further defined by type: personal pronouns refer to specific persons or things; possessive pronouns indicate ownership; reflexive pronouns are used to emphasize another noun or pronoun; relative pronouns introduce a subordinate clause; and demonstrative pronouns identify, point to, or refer to nouns.

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my!

See the TIP Sheet on "Pronouns" for further information.


  • A verb expresses action or being.

jump... is... write... become

The verb in a sentence expresses action or being. There is a main verb and sometimes one or more helping verbs. ("She can sing." Sing is the main verb; can is the helping verb.) A verb must agree with its subject in number (both are singular or both are plural). Verbs also take different forms to express tense.

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my!

See the TIP Sheet on "Verbs" for more information.


  • An adjective modifies or describes a noun or pronoun.

pretty... old... blue... smart

An adjective is a word used to modify or describe a noun or a pronoun. It usually answers the question of which one, what kind, or how many. (Articles [a, an, the] are usually classified as adjectives.)

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my!

See the TIP Sheet on "Adjectives" for more information.


  • An adverb modifies or describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

gently... extremely... carefully... well

An adverb describes or modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb, but never a noun. It usually answers the questions of when, where, how, why, under what conditions, or to what degree. Adverbs often end in -ly.

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my!

See the TIP Sheet on "Adverbs" for more information.


  • A preposition is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to form a phrase modifying another word in the sentence.

by... with.... about... until

(by the tree, with our friends, about the book, until tomorrow)

A preposition is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to form a phrase modifying another word in the sentence. Therefore a preposition is always part of a prepositional phrase. The prepositional phrase almost always functions as an adjective or as an adverb. The following list includes the most common prepositions:

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my!

See the TIP Sheet on "Prepositions" for more information.


  • A conjunction joins words, phrases, or clauses.

and... but... or... while... because

A conjunction joins words, phrases, or clauses, and indicates the relationship between the elements joined. Coordinating conjunctions connect grammatically equal elements: and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet. Subordinating conjunctions connect clauses that are not equal: because, although, while, since, etc. There are other types of conjunctions as well.

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my!

See the TIP Sheet on "Conjunctions" for more information.


  • An interjection is a word used to express emotion.

Oh!... Wow!... Oops!

An interjection is a word used to express emotion. It is often followed by an exclamation point.

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my!

See the TIP Sheet on "Interjections" for more information.


Taken from Butte College

Expository Essay Power Point


Poetry Forms - Definitions and Examples

Sonnet - a short rhyming poem with 14 lines.  The original sonnet form was invented in the 13/14th century by Dante and an Italian philosopher named Francisco Petrarch. The form remained largely unknown until it was found and developed by writers such as Shakespeare. Sonnets use iambic meter in each line and use line-ending rhymes.

For more about Sonnets, read How To Write A Sonnet (here also on the FFP Poetry Forums)

Limerick - a five-line witty poem with a distinctive rhythm. The first, second and fifth lines, the longer lines, rhyme. The third and fourth shorter lines rhyme. (A-A-B-B-A).

For more about Limericks, read How To Write A Limerick on the FFP Poetry Forums

Haiku - This ancient form of poem writing is renowned for its small size as well as the precise punctuation and syllables needed on its three lines. It is of ancient Asian origin.

Haiku's are composed of 3 lines, each a phrase. The first line typically has 5 syllables, second line has 7 and the 3rd and last line repeats another 5. In addition there is a seasonal reference included.

For more about Haiku's, read How To Write A Haiku

Narrative - A narrative poem tells the story of an event in the form of a poem. There is a strong sense of narration, characters, and plot. See Narrative Poem Examples

Epic - a lengthy narrative poem in grand language celebrating the adventures and accomplishments of a legendary or conventional hero

Couplet - two lines of verse which rhyme and form a unit alone or as part of a poem

Free Verse - A Free Verse Poem does not follow any rules. Their creation is completely in the hands of the author. Rhyming, syllable count, punctuation, number of lines, number of stanzas, and line formation can be done however the author wants in order to convey the idea. There is no right or wrong way to create a Free Verse poem



What is the purpose of a resume?

The purpose of a resume is to provide a summary of your skills, abilities and accomplishments. It is a quick advertisement of who you are. It is a "snapshot" of you with the intent of capturing and emphasizing interests and secure you an interview. It is not an autobiography. Since your resume is a primary tool in your job search, it needs to be carefully written and critiqued. The rest of this website is designed to guide you through the process.

How does one begin a resume?

In order to effectively convey your strengths, you must do a self-assessment.

  • Begin with a list of your greatest accomplishments and personal qualities.
  • Describe your skills and accomplishments with each employer by using action words. List only the skills that you would like to use on a new job. If you are writing a scannable resume then use key words.
  • Write a chronological history of your employment, training, volunteer work and extra-curricular activities.
  • Analyze the requirements of the new job you want to apply for.
  • Compare the skills required with your background and indicate how you have demonstrated these skills. (Apply for jobs where you have the closest fit and interest.)

How does one organize a resume?

The entire resume must be targeted to a specific job objective. Arrange a resume to highlight your strongest or most extensive skills. For example, if you have just graduated from college, your education, class-work and internship or co-op experiences are most important and should be placed at the beginning.

If you have an extensive work history which is the highlight of your resume, the education section would go near the end of the resume. If you are not quite finished with your degree and you are currently taking college courses directly related to the position; then either your co-op work history, the highlights of school achievements or specific courses can be indicated. Below are some suggestions in setting up your resume. Link to Resume Content for categories that may be used in the content of a resume and a description of each of these categories.

  • Organize the resume so it is easy to follow. Margin space should be approximately one inch around the edges.
  • Write short sentences.
  • Distinguish categories clearly with headings that are bold, underlined or CAPITALIZED.
  • Use bullets, underlining and capitalizing sparingly to guide the reader to detail within a category.
  • Place key words or the main point of each statement at the beginning of each line.
  • Leave a space between lines to enhance readability.
  • Keep resumes to one page, if possible; however, two pages is acceptable. Use whatever space is needed to relate information to potential employers. Resumes should be long enough to convey your qualifications and experience, but not wordy. If you are not able to concentrate information into one page, make sure the information on the second page has sufficient content. It is important to share your resume with someone who can provide objective feedback.

What is included in the resume content?

Use the categories below which are most appropriate to your situation.


In order for a resume to make a positive impression, you must develop a theme. Do you want to show your extensive work history? Do you want to highlight your educational background or stress your skills/qualifications and achievements as well as duties and responsibilities. For more information, link to Organization and/or Resume Format.


The heading is always at the center or the left-hand side of the resume or near the top of the page. List your name, temporary or permanent street address and e-mail address. Do not forget to include your home or work telephone number if you are comfortable with prospective employers calling. If using an answering machine be certain you have recorded a message that is clear, concise and businesslike.


Job Objective.

Including a "job objective" is optional but highly recommended. This indicates what your job goal is; be specific. In twelve words or less, clearly state what type of job you want. Avoid overused phrases, such as "utilizing my skills" or "offering a potential to grow" without being specific about how to accomplish that goal.


Indicate the school or college you have attended, any seminars, workshops, military training or special courses you have taken. If you have taken college courses, list the college, city, major, most recent degree awarded and when you graduated. You may also list your grade point average (G.P.A.), if desired but specify on what scale (e.g., 3.5 on a 4.0 scale). If you are just beginning college, list the high school, as well as any significant college courses you have studied. If you have been out of high school for a number of years, omit the high school; a significant career history may be more meaningful. If your career history is more important than the education, list the experience first and place the education later in the resume.

Employment, Work History, Experiences, Work Experiences, Military or Volunteer Positions.

(Need not be paid to be included.) This is a critical section of the resume and probably the most extensive area. Begin with your current or most recent job and use reverse chronological order. List the information in this order:

  • Job title
  • Name of the employer and dates (if applicable)
  • City and state of the employer
  • A summary of your accomplishments and responsibilities
  • For a military entry, current or most recent rank and job classification

When writing the summary of accomplishments and responsibilities, explain concisely the duties relevant to the position you are seeking. Emphasize the responsibilities and skills that would readily transfer to your next job. Be careful not to overstate your duties. Use action words to describe your qualifications. Use key words if you are writing a scannable resume.

Other Related Work Experience.

In today's job market, internships, apprenticeships, co-ops and other related experiences are very important. State as briefly as possible those activities which are relevant to the job for which you are applying. This information could be similar to that provided for work experience.


List certification and licenses in your field of expertise, indicating the dates and type of test taken for licensure. Include the number of the license, if appropriate.

Skills, Accomplishments or Achievements (optional).

If you are creating a functional resume, divide into skill headings, with specific examples bulleted under each section. Begin with the skill for which you are applying. Some of the headings may include: communication, management, leadership, customer service, financial skills, etc.

Awards and Achievements.

If you have won athletic awards, presented research at a professional conference or were recognized for community involvement or a competition then consider including them.

Memberships or Professional Organizations.

List any memberships, campus activities or professional organizations you are currently or were engaged in that relate to your career objective. Indicate office(s) held.

Hobbies or Interests (optional).

This section may be included if you have hobbies or interests which demonstrate and highlight skills, abilities and characteristics about you. Some examples are: work with your hands, theater, art work, travel, historic preservation, hiking or even hunting.

Personal Background.

This section is rarely used in resumes today, but should you feel some personal information relates to the job objective, it may be included in the resume or in the cover letter.


Preparing a separate sheet of four or five professionally related references is acceptable. References are not normally included with your resume but may be furnished upon request on a separate sheet of paper. Divide references into work related, professional and personal.

Final Touches.

Final considerations are the selection of text, fonts, paper, printing and mailing methods.

  • Text The most popular typefaces are (new century schoolbook, bookman, times, courier).
  • Fonts (type size). Two types are generally used, 10-point and 12-point. An exception to this could be a header typed in a large font to highlight your name.
  • Paper and Envelopes. Resumes, cover letters and thank you letters should be printed on a high quality cotton paper. These choices reflect your style, your attention to detail and thoroughness. Variations are acceptable in some instances if they accentuate or highlight your field of interest or expertise.
  • Printing Methods. Always use a quality method of printing, such as a laser printer. If you do not use this, then have your resume typeset. Use graphics very sparingly or not at all unless their use appears appropriate for the field for which you are applying.
  • Mailing/Distribution. If you fax a resume, use white paper. Use the largest font which comfortably fits within your resume margins. Always mail or deliver an original to the prospective employer the same day. When doing a global job search, consider the electronic resume. Some local printing companies can help with the service of on-line resumes, but consider the fees and confidentiality issues involved in this choice.


What resume format does one use?

Directions to assist you in choosing a format for your resume, each of the formats below will link you to an explanation of how it is used and samples of resumes done with that particular format. Do not use the exact phrasing from these sample resumes; your resume will be more effective if you choose your own wording appropriate to the job.

The Chronological Resume format is the most effective choice for individuals with a strong or continuous work history and increasing levels of responsibility in the occupational area stated in the resume objective. Dates should be placed on the resume in reverse chronological order (most recent jobs listed first) to highlight the continuous work history and increasing levels of responsibility. Job titles may be italicized, capitalized, underlined or printed in bold to emphasize increased responsibility. The resume should then list those skill qualifications or characteristics offered to an employer.

The Functional Resume is usually chosen by individuals without a strong work history or current work experience. It emphasizes skill areas and de-emphasizes work history and dates. The functional resume is for someone who would like to change careers, has no career history or desires a job in another field. It lists areas of expertise, skills and qualifications with the most extensive skills listed near the top of the resume. For example, this could include management, leadership, technical or communication skills which employer’s desire.


Chronological Resume Sample

Janet V. Smith
1110 Main Street
North Hero, Vermont 050773
( 802 ) 772 - 4325


Personnel Administration and Labor Relations


Bachelor of Science in Industrial Relations
Hammond, Indiana

Associate of Arts in Business Administration
North Hampton, Massachusetts


Newland County Social Services
100 Central Place Avenue
Placid City, New York 10027

Interviewed, placed, trained, and handled grievances of applicants and employees in clerical and support services. Developed programs for the employee career advancement.

Corton Steel Company 
10 Lake Street
Akron, Ohio 47819

Assisted personnel officer in employee selection, training and disciplinary activities. Major responsibility included ensuring 
complete, appropriate, up-to-date, and legally acceptable communication which was maintained between the Human Resources 
officer and the various departments of Corton Steel Company.

ASSEMBLY LINE, Production Worker, Summer 1984 
Borg-Warner, Inc.
1234 S. Riley Dr.
Ithaca, New York 14850

Primary duties included working with a team of 30 other workers in assembly line production. Secondary duties included, being responsible for maintaining and posting of daily production results. Attending weekly production scheduling meetings with sales and operations department staff and communicating information to production team.


COUNSELOR, Summers 1983 and 1984
Planned Parenthood
432 E. Dell St.
North Hero, Vermont 05073

Explained various aspects of family planning and provided birth control information to clients of Planned Parenthood .
Made referrals to other counselors and physicians when appropriate.


Fluent in French. Proficient in Microsoft Word and Word Perfect, database management and various office procedures.


Furnished upon request*

*This statement is always optional

Functional Resume Sample

Mark Meyers
1414 South Harp Road
Dover, Delaware
(781) 256-5221

Community Recreation


PLANNED AND IMPLEMENTED PROGRAMS in stage craft and drama; assisted with programming in ceramics, photography and physical fitness for Dover Youth Bureau Summer Program. Summer 1998.

LECTURED AND LED TOURS at Atlantic County (Delaware) Park Nature Trail and Visitors' Center. Prepared slides for informational lectures; helped in construction of nature exhibits. Summer 1997.

COORDINATED MEN'S INTRAMURAL SPORTS competitions for Hoboken University. Supervised equipment and Scheduling activities. 1996-97.


DIRECTED PUBLICITY EFFORTS of University Drama Club for several productions. Developed innovative techniques such as a costumed cast parade to arouse interest in an avant-garde staging of Alice in Wonderland, which gained campus wide attention. 1995-96

ADVERTISED in various media and became familiar with advertising methods, including writing news releases, taping radio announcements, and designing graphics for posters and fliers. Drama Club and various men's sports activities, 1994-95

RESPONDED TO CUSTOMER CONCERNS at McGar's Department Store, Dover, Delaware. Worked at the service desk, tracking down problems and rectifying errors. Summer, 1995.


TRAINED IN OUTDOOR LEADERSHIP and survival skills for Outward Bound. 1997

COACHED hockey and basketball. Dover Youth Bureau. 1996.

PARTICIPATED in hockey, swimming and volleyball competitions. 1994-95


PREPARED college research project on the recreational needs of residents of Hoboken neighborhood: designed questionnaire to solicit residents' own perceptions of their needs; interviewed residents and local officials. Fall semester 1995.

REPORTED on effectiveness of Dover Youth Bureau programming. Summer 1995.

OFFICE SKILLS include familiarity with Adobe Illustrator, PageMaker, Microsoft Word.

KEYBOARDING and use of office equipment.


Bachelor of Science, June 1997. Major: Recreation; Minor: Drama
Hoboken University, Hoboken, New Jersey