AP Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life

Overview: Carbon: The Backbone of Life

          Although cells are _____________________ water, the rest consists mostly of carbon-based compounds

          Carbon is unparalleled in its ability to form ___________________________________________


          Proteins, ____________________________________, carbohydrates, and other molecules that distinguish living matter are all composed of carbon compounds

Concept 4.1: Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds

          ___________________________________________ is the study of compounds that contain carbon

          Organic compounds range from simple molecules to colossal ones

          Most organic compounds contain ________________________ atoms in addition to carbon atoms

Concept 4.2: Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms

          ________________________________________________ is the key to an atom’s characteristics

          Electron configuration determines the kinds and number of bonds an atom will form with other atoms

The Formation of Bonds with Carbon

          With four valence electrons, carbon can form ________________ covalent bonds with a variety of atoms

          This ______________________________________ makes large, complex molecules possible

          In molecules with multiple carbons, each carbon bonded to four other atoms has a ___________________________________________shape

          However, when two carbon atoms are joined by a double bond, the molecule has a __________ shape

          The electron configuration of carbon gives it covalent __________________________________ with many different elements

          The valences of carbon and its most frequent partners (hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen) are the ______________________________________ that governs the architecture of living molecules

          Carbon atoms can partner with atoms other than hydrogen; for example:

          Carbon dioxide: CO2


          Urea: CO(NH2)2


Molecular Diversity Arising from Carbon Skeleton Variation

          Carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules

          Carbon chains vary in length and shape


          __________________________________ are organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen

          Many organic molecules, such as _______________, have hydrocarbon components

          Hydrocarbons can undergo reactions that release a large amount of ___________________


          ________________________ are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties:

          ____________________________________________________ have different covalent arrangements of their atoms

          _____________________________________________________ have the same covalent arrangements but differ in spatial arrangements

          ___________________________________ are isomers that are mirror images of each other

          Enantiomers are important in the pharmaceutical industry

          Two enantiomers of a drug may have different effects

          Differing effects of enantiomers demonstrate that organisms are sensitive to even subtle __________________________________ in molecules

Concept 4.3: A small number of chemical groups are key to the functioning of biological molecules

          Distinctive properties of organic molecules depend not only on the carbon skeleton but also on the _______________________________________________________________ attached to it

          A number of characteristic groups are often attached to skeletons of organic molecules

The Chemical Groups Most Important in the Processes of Life

          _______________________________________________ are the components of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions

          The number and _________________________________ of functional groups give each molecule its unique properties

          The seven functional groups that are most important in the chemistry of life:








ATP: An Important Source of Energy for Cellular Processes

          One phosphate molecule, _____________________________________________________ , is the primary energy-transferring molecule in the cell

          _________________ consists of an organic molecule called adenosine attached to a string of three phosphate groups