Origins of Evolutionary Theory
Pre-Darwinian Evolutionary Ideas
? Before the 18th century, _________________________________ were the norm.
? Evolutionary change was 1st proposed by ____________________________________________.
• Recognized fossils as evidence for former life destroyed by natural catastrophe
? After the rise of _________________________________, evolutionary views were considered rebellious and heretical.
? Jean Baptiste de Lamark (1744-1829)
• Authored the 1st complete explanation of _______________________________ in 1809
• Inheritance of __________________________________ Characteristics
? Organisms acquire adaptations and pass them to their offspring
? Lamarck’s concept is ______________________________________.
• b/c it claims that individual organisms transform their characteristics to produce evolution.
? Transformational evolution is now rejected b/c we know that acquired traits are not inherited.
Lyell and Uniformitarianism
? Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875)
• Principle of ________________________________________________________
? The laws of _____________________ and ____________________ remain the same throughout the history of the earth
? Past geological events occurred by _____________________________________ similar to those observed today
• Natural forces, acting over long periods of time could explain the formation of fossil bearing rock.
• The Earth’s age must be measured in _________________________________________.
“After having been twice driven back by heavy southwestern gales, Her Majesty’s ship Beagle, a ten-gun brig, under the command of Captain Robert FitzRoy, R.N., sailed from Devonport on the 27th of December, 1831.”
? 1831-1836, voyage to _______________________________ and the ______________________
• Darwin made extensive collections and observations on the ___________________ and
------------------------------------------------ of S America
? Unearthed numerous fossils
? Noted the similarities w/ N American fossils
? Encountered sea shells @ 13,000 ft (___________________________________)
? Experienced an earthquake and torrential rains
? Strengthened the idea that ____________________________________ were responsible for the geological feature of Earth
? Mid-September 1835
? Volcanic archipelago straddling the equator 600 miles west of Ecuador
? Unlike any other islands on Earth
? The Beagle paid a 5-week visit
? Darwin began to develop his views of the _________________________ of life on earth
? Observed many sp. Including
? Similar in topography and climate to the ________________________________ Islands
? Very ___________________________ fauna and flora
? Plants and animals related to those of the S American _____________________
? Different in ecology and _____________________________ traits
? Each island often contained a _________________________ species related to forms on other islands
? Darwin concluded that Galápagos life must have originated on the ________________________ and then undergone __________________________________ in the various environmental conditions of the different islands
• Living things were neither divinely created nor immutable, but products of evolution.
? October 2, 1836 – The Beagle returns to England
• Darwin’s journal was published 3 years later
• Brief statement concerning natural selection published
? November ______________
• On the ___________________________________ by Means of ___________________
_______________________, or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life published