Zo 6.1

Origins of Evolutionary Theory

p. 103-106

Pre-Darwinian Evolutionary Ideas

?      Before the 18th century, _________________________________ were the norm.

?      Evolutionary change was 1st proposed by ____________________________________________.

          Recognized fossils as evidence for former life destroyed by natural catastrophe

?      After the rise of _________________________________, evolutionary views were considered rebellious and heretical.


?      Jean Baptiste de Lamark (1744-1829)

          Authored the 1st complete explanation of _______________________________ in 1809

          Inheritance of __________________________________ Characteristics

?      Organisms acquire adaptations and pass them to their offspring

?      Lamarck’s concept is ______________________________________.

          b/c it claims that individual organisms transform their characteristics to produce evolution.

?      Transformational evolution is now rejected b/c we know that acquired traits are not inherited.

Lyell and Uniformitarianism

?      Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875)

          Principle of ________________________________________________________

?      The laws of _____________________ and ____________________ remain the same throughout the history of the earth

?      Past geological events occurred by _____________________________________ similar to those observed today

          Natural forces, acting over long periods of time could explain the formation of fossil bearing rock.

          The Earth’s age must be measured in _________________________________________.

Darwin’s Voyage

“After having been twice driven back by heavy southwestern gales, Her Majesty’s ship Beagle, a ten-gun brig, under the command of Captain Robert FitzRoy, R.N., sailed from Devonport on the 27th of December, 1831.”

                                                                                                -Charles Darwin

?      1831-1836, voyage to _______________________________ and the ______________________

          Darwin made extensive collections and observations on the ___________________ and

------------------------------------------------ of S America

?          Unearthed numerous fossils

?          Noted the similarities w/ N American fossils

?          Encountered sea shells @ 13,000 ft (___________________________________)

?          Experienced an earthquake and torrential rains

?          Strengthened the idea that ____________________________________ were responsible for the geological feature of Earth

?      Mid-September 1835


?          Volcanic archipelago straddling the equator 600 miles west of Ecuador

?          Unlike any other islands on Earth

?          The Beagle paid a 5-week visit

?          Darwin began to develop his views of the _________________________ of life on earth

?          Observed many sp. Including

?      _____________________________________________

?      _____________________________________________

?      _____________________________________________

?      _____________________________________________

?          Similar in topography and climate to the ________________________________ Islands

?          Very ___________________________ fauna and flora

?          Plants and animals related to those of the S American _____________________

?          Different in ecology and _____________________________ traits

?          Each island often contained a _________________________ species related to forms on other islands

?      Darwin concluded that Galápagos life must have originated on the ________________________ and then undergone __________________________________ in the various environmental conditions of the different islands

          Living things were neither divinely created nor immutable, but products of evolution.

?      October 2, 1836 – The Beagle returns to England

          Darwin’s journal was published  3 years later

?      1858

          Brief statement concerning natural selection published

?      November ______________

          On the ___________________________________ by Means of ___________________

_______________________, or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life published