? Explains the origins of _________________________________, including all developmental, behavioral, anatomical, and physiological attributes that enhance an organism’s ability to use environmental resources to _______________________ and to __________________________.
? Darwin developed his theory of natural selection as a series of 5 __________________________ and 3 ____________________________________ drawn from them.
? All populations produce large numbers of _________________________ and potentially large numbers of _______________________________ each generation. Population size would increase _______________________________________ at an enormous rate if all individuals that were produced at each generation survived and reproduced.
? Darwin calculated that, even in slow-breeding animals such as elephants, a single pair breeding from age 30-90 and having only 6 young could produce ___________________ descendents in 750 years.
? Natural populations _______________________________ in size across generations and sometimes go extinct, but no natural populations show the continued ____________________________________________ that their reproductive biology theoretically could sustain.
? Exponential growth of a natural population would require ________________________
_________________________________________________ to provide food and habitat for the expanding population, but natural resources are finite.
? A continuing _____________________________________________ exists among members of a population.
? Survivors represent only a part, usually a ________________________________, of the individuals produced each generation.
? Darwin wrote in On The Origin of Species that “it is the doctrine of Malthus applied with manifold force to the whole animal and vegetable kingdoms.”
? The struggle for food, shelter, and space becomes increasingly severe as _______________________________________ develops.
? No 2 individuals are exactly alike.
? They differ in:
? Darwin noted that offspring tend to ______________________________________ their parents, although he did not understand how.
? The hereditary mechanism discovered by ______________________________________ would be applied to Darwin’s theory many years later.
? Varying organisms show ___________________________________________________ favoring advantageous traits.
? Survival in the struggle for existence is _________________________________ with respect to hereditary variation present in the population.
? Some traits give their possessors an _________________________________ in using the environment for effective survival and reproduction.
? Survivors ________________________ their favored traits to accumulate in the population.
? Over many generations, __________________________________________________________
? The _____________________________________ reproduction of varying organisms gradually transforms species and results in their long-term “improvement.”
? Darwin knew that people often use _________________________________ variation to produce useful new breeds of livestock and plants.
? _____________________________________ selection acting over millions of years should be even more effective in producing new types than _______________________ selection imposed during a human lifetime.
? ____________________________________________ acting independently on geographically isolated populations would cause them to diverge from each other, thereby generating ________________________________________________________ that lead to ________________________________________________.