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Zo 6.6

Microevolution & Macroevolution

p. 120-128

Microevolution

}        ______________________________________________________________________________

      ______________________________________________________________________________

}        Polymorphism – _________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

}        Gene pool – ____________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

}        Allelic frequency – _______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Genetic Equilibrium

}        Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium – _____________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

}  In large ___________________________ populations, allelic frequencies and genotypic ratios attain an equilibrium in one generation and _______________________________ thereafter _____________________________ disturbed by recurring mutations, natural selection, migration, nonrandom mating, or genetic drift.

}        These disturbances are the sources of _________________________________

_________________________________________________________________.

Genetic Drift

}        ______________________________________________________________________________

}        Occurs in all populations of _____________________________ size

}  The smaller a population, the greater the genetic drift

}        ______________________________________ effect occurs when there is a large reduction in the size of a population that increases evolutionary change by genetic drift.

}  Associated with the founder effect

Nonrandom Mating

}        Positive assortative mating – ______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

}  Increases ________________________________________________

}  Typically affects 1 or a few traits at a time

}        Inbreeding – ____________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

}  Increases ________________________________________________

}  Simultaneously affects all traits

Migration

}        _______________________________________________________________________________

      _____________________________________________________________________________

}        Prevents diverging populations

}        Emigration – ____________________________________________________________________

}        Immigration – __________________________________________________________________

Natural Selection

}        Can change both ______________________________ and ______________________________ frequencies in a population

}        Acts on the whole animals, not on isolated traits

}        Relative fitness – ________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

}  High relative fitness – _______________________________________________________

}  Low relative fitness – ________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Macroevolution

}        ______________________________________________________________________________

}        Encompasses the origins of new organismal structures and designs, evolutionary trends, adaptive radiation, phylogenetic relationships of species, and mass extinction

}        A species has 2 possible evolutionary fates

}  _______________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

}  ________________________________________________________________________

 _________________________________________________________________________

Species Selection

}        ______________________________________________________________________________

      ______________________________________________________________________________

}        Species level properties

}        ________________________________________________________________________

}        ________________________________________________________________________

}        ________________________________________________________________________

}        ________________________________________________________________________

}        Etc.

Mass Extinctions

}        ______________________________________________________________________________

      ______________________________________________________________________________

}        Occur approximately every _____________________________________________

}        Permian extinction

}        ________________________________________________________

}        90% of marine invertebrate species disappeared within a few million years

}        Cretaceous extinction

}        65 mya

}        ________________________________________________________________________

 
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