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Zo Asexual and Sexual Reproduction

Asexual and Sexual Reproduction

p. 132-133, 135

Asexual Reproduction

         The production of individuals without ____________________________ (sex cells).

         Offspring are genetically identical to the parent and called _____________________________.

         Occurs in:

?          ________________________________________________________________________

?          ________________________________________________________________________

?          ________________________________________________________________________

Fission

         _________________________ fission

?          The body of the parent divides by _____________________ into 2 approximately equal parts

?          Each part grows into an individual similar to the _________________________

?          Ex: _____________________________________________________________________

         _________________________ fission

?          The ________________________ divides repeatedly before division of the cytoplasm

?          Produces many daughter cells _______________________________________

?          Ex: spore formation

___________________________________

         ___________________________ division of an organism

         New individual arises as an __________________________________ (bud) of its parent

         Develops organs like those of the parent

         Detaches itself

         Ex: ______________________________________

Gemmulation

         Formation of a new individual from an _______________________________ of cells surrounded by a resistant capsule (gemmule)

         Gemmules often form in the ____________________, survive the _______________________ in the dried or frozen body of the parent, and become active and grow in the _______________

         Ex: __________________________

Fragmentation

         _________________________________________ animal breaks into 2 or more parts

         Each fragment is capable of becoming a ______________________________________________

         Ex: ______________________________

Sexual Reproduction

         Production of individuals from gametes

         Bisexual (biparental) reproduction

?           involves 2 separate parents

         Hermaphroditism

         Parthenogenesis

Bisexual Reproducion

         Production of offspring formed by the union of gametes from 2 genetically __________________________ parents

         Offspring have a _________________________________________ genotype

         Parents are characteristically of different __________________________

?          _______________________

?          _______________________

         Distinctions between male and female are based on the _____________________________ and _________________________ of the gametes they produce.

         Ovum (____________________)

?          Produced by _______________________________

?          Large (because of stored __________________________ to sustain early development)

?          ___________________________________________

?          Produced in relatively __________________________________ #’s

         Spermatozoon (_____________________)

?          Produced by _________________________________

?          __________________________________

?          __________________________________

?          Produced in ______________________________________ #’s

         Meisois

?          Gamete-producing nuclear division

?          Chromosomes split _____________________

?          Cell divides _______________________

?          End result – ______________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

         Fertilization

?          2 haploid gametes are combined to restore the normal (diploid) chromosomal # of the species

?          Fertilized egg is called the ___________________________

         Genetic ______________________________, due to meiosis and fertilization, is the great strength of sexual reproduction.

?          Provides ___________________________ genetic combinations

Sex Organs

         Primary Sex Organs

?          _____________________________

         Produce _____________________________ (gametes)

         Testis – produce ______________________

         Ovary – produce ______________________

         Accessory sex organs

?          ___________________________ and ____________________________ germ cells

Disadvantages of Sexual Reproduction

         ______________________________________________________________________________

         ______________________________________________________________________________

         ______________________________________________________________________________

Advantages to Sexual Reproduction

         ______________________________________________________________________________

?          Produces novel genotypes that ______________________________________________

____________________________________________________ may survive and reproduce

         ______________________________________________________________________________

?          Allows a species to _________________________ to changing environments

 
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