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Zo Stereoptypical Behaviors

Stereotypical Behavior

p. 768-769

 

Describing Behavior

-          Greylag Geese

o       _____________________________________ (Lorenz and Tinbergen)

§         If a female graylag goose is presented with an egg a short distance from her nest, she will ___________, extend her ___________ until the bill is just over the egg and then ___________her neck, pulling the egg carefully into the nest.

§         If the egg is ______________________ once the goose has begun her retrieval, or the egg slips and rolls away, the goose continues the retrieval movement without the egg until she is _________________________ again on her nest.

§         Then she will _____________________________.

·         The behavior must be ___________________________ once atarted.

·         Fixed pattern of behavior – ______________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

 

Stereotypical Behaviors

-          Fixed behaviors are also called ____________________________ behaviors.

o       The graylag goose is not particularly ___________________________ about what she retrieves.

§         Almost any smooth, _______________________ object will trigger the egg-rolling behavior.

·         She will discard an object if it doesn’t “___________________________” when she settles back down on the nest.

-          The egg outside the nest acts as a ________________________ to release the egg-retrieval behavior.

o       Releaser – ________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

§         Can also be called a “________________________________” when the animal is responding to some specific aspect of the releaser (__________________________________________)

-          There are hundreds of sign stimuli.

o       Alarm call from adult ___________________________________ causes the chicks to crouch and freeze.

o       Certain nocturnal moths take evasive maneuvers or drop to the ground when they hear ultrasonic cries of _________________that feed on them.

o       Most other sounds do not release this response.

-          These examples illustrate the predictable and __________________________ nature of most animal behaviors.

-          Some stereotyped behavior can be released ___________________________.

-          Three-spined sticklebacks

o       Males select a territory in the spring, and defend this territory ________________________.

o       The underside of the male becomes bright_____________, and approach of another red bellied male will elicit threat __________________________ or aggressive __________________.

o       The red belly serves as a ________________________ for aggression.

o       In a laboratory environment, males will act aggressively towards any model bearing a red stripe.

§         This was tested using many objects, even a _________________________________ with a red underside.

o       A model that closely resembles the male stickleback that lacks the red belly is not attacked as ________________________________

-          Fortunately for the sticklebacks, this aggressive response to red works most of the time because red objects are ____________________________________________________________________________________.

 

Why do animals exhibit automatic programmed responses?

-          Thinking about or learning an appropriate response _____________________

______________________________________________________________.

-          Release of a preprogrammed stereotypical behavior enables an animal to ____________________________________________________________________________________

      ____________________________________________________________________________________.

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