- Greylag Geese
o _____________________________________ (Lorenz and Tinbergen)
§ If a female graylag goose is presented with an egg a short distance from her nest, she will ___________, extend her ___________ until the bill is just over the egg and then ___________her neck, pulling the egg carefully into the nest.
§ If the egg is ______________________ once the goose has begun her retrieval, or the egg slips and rolls away, the goose continues the retrieval movement without the egg until she is _________________________ again on her nest.
§ Then she will _____________________________.
· The behavior must be ___________________________ once atarted.
· Fixed pattern of behavior – ______________________
- Fixed behaviors are also called ____________________________ behaviors.
o The graylag goose is not particularly ___________________________ about what she retrieves.
§ Almost any smooth, _______________________ object will trigger the egg-rolling behavior.
· She will discard an object if it doesn’t “___________________________” when she settles back down on the nest.
- The egg outside the nest acts as a ________________________ to release the egg-retrieval behavior.
o Releaser – ________________________________________________
§ Can also be called a “________________________________” when the animal is responding to some specific aspect of the releaser (__________________________________________)
- There are hundreds of sign stimuli.
o Alarm call from adult ___________________________________ causes the chicks to crouch and freeze.
o Certain nocturnal moths take evasive maneuvers or drop to the ground when they hear ultrasonic cries of _________________that feed on them.
o Most other sounds do not release this response.
- These examples illustrate the predictable and __________________________ nature of most animal behaviors.
- Some stereotyped behavior can be released ___________________________.
- Three-spined sticklebacks
o Males select a territory in the spring, and defend this territory ________________________.
o The underside of the male becomes bright_____________, and approach of another red bellied male will elicit threat __________________________ or aggressive __________________.
o The red belly serves as a ________________________ for aggression.
o In a laboratory environment, males will act aggressively towards any model bearing a red stripe.
§ This was tested using many objects, even a _________________________________ with a red underside.
o A model that closely resembles the male stickleback that lacks the red belly is not attacked as ________________________________
- Fortunately for the sticklebacks, this aggressive response to red works most of the time because red objects are ____________________________________________________________________________________.
Why do animals exhibit automatic programmed responses?
- Thinking about or learning an appropriate response _____________________
- Release of a preprogrammed stereotypical behavior enables an animal to ____________________________________________________________________________________