Aug 21st – 23rd 2012
- Born in Feiberg,Moravia ( Czechoslovakia) on May 6, 1856
- Was the oldest of 8 children
- In 1873 enrolled in medical school at the University of Vienna
- Studied biology and eventually neurology under German scientist Ernst Bruke
- Received his degree in 1881
- Engaged in 1882 to Martha Bernays
- Married in 1886
- Had 6 children
- Youngest Anna was a distinguished psychoanalyst in her own right
- Father of Psychoanalysis
- Psychoanalysis is (The method of psychological therapy originated by Sigmund Freud in which free association, dream interpretation, and analysis of resistance and transference are used to explore repressed or unconscious impulses, anxieties, and internal conflicts, in order to free psychic energy for mature love and work)
- Famous first study with colleague Breuer in 1800 named The Study of Anna O.
- Explained she was perfectly normal until she was 21 yrs. of age
- She began to experience terrible squint that blurred her vision
- A gagging feeling when she tried to drink a glass of water
- Paralysis of her right arm which would spread down her body
- During her visits with Freud and Breuer she would sit in a trancelike state and talk about her past experiences
- At one point Anna related a childhood incident in which she had watched her governess’s dog drink out of a glass.
- This disgusted her, since she disliked both the governess and the dog.
- Once she retold her story and let her emotions show , she was once again able to drink a glass of water
- Sometimes hypnosis was used which brought about a painful experience with her father
- She remembered falling asleep by his deathbed and dreaming that snakes where trying to bite her father, however she could not reach out to him because her arm had fallen asleep while hanging over the chair.
- Once again after realizing these deep emotions her paralysis disappeared
- Freud interpreted Anna’s symptoms as being caused by strong , primitive, probably related to unconscious sexual desires.
- This spurred on Freud’s psychoanalytic Theory
- Freud discovered soon after while working with long term friend and colleague Josef Breuer ( Partner for Anna O) that many neuroses ( Phobias , hysteria, paralysis, pains and paranoia ) had origins in deeply traumatic experiences which were hidden among the unconscious mind
- This caused Freud to write the classical expression in Studies in Hysteria which was jointly published with Breuer in 1895
- Soon after Breuer could not agree with Freud’s excessive emphasis on sexual origins and parted his company
- Working now alone, Freud published The Interpretation of Dreams
Interpretation of Dreams
- Freud’s theory of dreams stated
- “ We have “ censors” that protect us from realizing threatening and unconscious desires or wishes, especially those involving sex or aggression. To protect us from having threatening thoughts the “ censors” transform our secret, guilt- ridden, and anxiety provoking desires into harmless symbols that appear in our dreams and do not disturb our sleep or conscious thought.
S. Freud’s Infantile Sexuality Stages
From Birth a child will go through certain stages within its development to lead a “Normal” adult life
These stages are present at birth and drives the infant by actions od bodily and sexual pleasure
- Oral Stage
Pleasure from breast feeding
- Anal Stage
Locus of Pleasure or energy release specifically from the anus ( Defecation)
- Phallic Stage
Interest in young children with the sexual organs
- Latency Stage
Repression of sexual thoughts and development of non sexual activities
- Genital Stage
Sexual desires are renewed and one seeks relationships from others of the opposite sex.
- This phallic stage also results in deep sexual attraction for parent of the opposite sex and hatred for the same sex parent
Ex: Momma’s Boy
Ex: Daddy’s Girl
This is known as the Oedipus Complex
- This can then trigger guilt within the child. Especially male children who believe that if they give rise to such feelings that they could be harmed by the father
- This is called Castration Anxiety
- Child usually resolve said Oedipus Complex and bonds with parent of same sex, usually around age 5
- The fourth stage of Oedipus usually lasts until puberty when again the genital development begins and pleasure drives reinforce around this area again
- Freud believed this to be a normal human development
- The 5th and final stage is known as the Genital Stage.This lasts from Puberty through adulthood.
- This stage is only present if the child successfully completes the other stages. If other stages where not completed properly then the child will remain in those stages until conflict is resolved.
- Also said to be
The I, The IT and the Over I
or the Treibe, Ich, and Uber- Ich (German)
Freud believed that everyone is born with the Id which is known as the basic needs
If said needs are not met then the child’s Id will speak out until such needs are met
- Next 3 years the Ego plays a part
- This is known as the “ reality principle”, or the Conscious mind
- Job of the Ego is to meet the job of the Id while taking into consideration the reality of the situation
- By age 5 the Superego develops
- This is the “ moral thought” or the sense of right and wrong
- In a healthy person these all live balanced roles within the person
Addicted to Coke
- Wrote 4 papers ( amounted to 12 volumes when translated) entitled Uber Coke in 1884
- On April 24,1884 he ordered his first gram of cocaine from a local apothecary ( Pharmacy of that time)
- He thought and read that it was good for fatigue and thought it could help with nervous disorders
- Cost 1/10th his salary
- He sent it to his friends as well as his Fiancé where he wrote to her
“ I will kiss you quite red and feed you till you are plump. And if you are forward you shall see who is the stronger, a little girl who doesn’t eat enough or a big strong man with cocaine in his body. In my last depression I took cocaine again and a small dose lifted me to heights in a wonderful fashion. I am just now collecting the literature for a song of praise to this magical substance. Freud (1884)
- This lead him and his colleagues to test this drug on themselves in all its forms
- They painted it on their skin , injected it, ingested it, snorted it and inserted it into orphases
- One scientist reportedly injected it into his “ sexual organ” and swears that it reduced the amount of mucus in his body
- All in aggreance they decided that “Coke felt Good”
- They experimented on a Chimp, who after receiving 3 days of cocaine hit his head on the cage over 12,000 times until he got more
- Freud developed a full on addiction and was up to 1 full gram a day
What goes up….
- Freud became paranoid, experienced convulsions, and hallucinations known as “Coke Bugs” ( which is the feeling of insects and snakes crawling under the skin) which resulted in massive sores and pick marks from him trying to “ pick them out”.
- Freud eventually felt the need to stop using coke when a close friend died of these “Coke Bugs”, he started to stop in 1890 and finally was coke free in 1904.
Interesting Freud Facts
- Diagnosed with mouth Cancer in 1923 due to cigar smoking
- Went through over 30 mouth surgeries in 16 years due to cancer
- Smoked over 20 cigars a day
- Only in US once ( in 1909)
- Stated that “ Sometimes a cigar is just a Cigar” which stated that even to Freud not everything had an underlying symbolic meaning.
- Hated and rejected people who disagreed with him
- Had a morbid fear of Ferns ( Yes the plant)
- Deathly afraid of the number 62, he would not book a hotel room in a hotel with more than 62 rooms for fear he would get that number
Think of how his 62nd birthday was?!?
- Died when he was 83 due to a physician – assisted Morphine overdose in London on September 23, 1939.
Nature VS Nurture
- Close your eyes and think about where you are today and the journey that took you there.
- How much was due to environment and upbringing?
- How much was due to your genes?
- Think about this
If nature is more influential than nature also sets bounds on where we can and cannot go
If Nurture is more influential than some of us are born significantly luckier than others.
- Evolution was said to be a series of Accidents
- We are a product of our own Genes
- Cannot pick your family
- Study showed the personalities of adopted siblings are less similar than the personalities of identical twins raised in separate families