Ekman and Goleman

Ekman and Goleman

  • Born  in 1934
  • He’s Still Alive!!!
  • Received his Ph.D. in clinical psychology at Adelphi University (1958
  • His research on facial expression and body movement began in 1954, as the subject of his Master’s thesis in 1955 and his first publication in 1957
  • Renowned expert in nonverbal communication
  • Studying emotion for more than forty years
  • Emotions determine the quality of our lives. They occur in every relationship we care about—in the workplace, in our friendships, in dealings with family members, and in our most intimate relation-ships. They can save our lives, but they can also cause real damage. They may lead us to act in ways that we think are realistic and appropriate, but our emotions can also lead us to act in ways we regret terribly afterward.  (Ekman , 2003)


  • Emotions can, and often do, begin very quickly, so quickly, in fact, that our conscious self does not      participate in or even witness
  • Why do we become emotional?
  • What triggers each of our emotions?
  • Can we remove a particular trigger?
  • Are expressions universal?

The experiment

  • All they had to do was pick the one ( Facial expression) that fit the story
  • "His/her friends have come and s/he is happy; s/he is angry and about to fight; his/her child has died and s/he feels very sad; s/he is looking at something s/he dislikes, or s/he is looking at something that smells bad; he/she is just now looking at something new and unexpected."
  • "S/he is sitting in her/his house all alone, and there is no one else in the village. There is no knife, axe, or bow and arrow in the house. A wild pig is standing in the door of the house, and the man(woman) is looking at the pig and is very afraid of it. The pig has been standing in the doorway for a few minutes and the person is looking at it very afraid, and the pig won't move away from the door and s/he is afraid the pig will bite him/her."
  • Made up sets of three pictures, which would be shown while one of the stories was read
  • Didn't want any picture to appear more than once, so the person's choice wouldn't be made by exclusion
  • In the space of just a few weeks we saw more than three hundred people, about 3 percent of this culture ( New Guinea)
  • The results were very clear-cut for happiness, anger, disgust, and sadness. Fear and surprise were not distinguished from each other—when people heard the fear story, they just as often picked a surprise as a fear expression, and the same was true when they heard the surprise story. But fear and surprise were distinguished from anger, disgust, sadness, and happiness.
  • To this day I do not know why fear and surprise were not distinguished from each other.

Experiment #2

  • Read them one of the stories and asked them to show what their face would look like if they were the person in the story
  • Videotaped nine men doing this, none of whom had participated in the first study
  • Unedited video tapes were shown to college students in America
  • If the expressions were culture-specific, then these college students would not be able to interpret correctly the expressions
  • Americans correctly identified the emotion except for the fear and surprise poses, where they were equally likely to call the pose fear or surprise


  • In 1978 our tool for measuring the face—the Facial Action Coding System (FACS)—was published and is now being used by hundreds of scientists around the world to measure facial movements, and computer scientists are busily working on how to make this measurement automatic and speedy.
  • Identified the facial signs that betray a lie

Micro Expressions

  • When people deliberately try to conceal their emotions (or unconsciously repress their emotions),
  • Happens  a  very brief--1/15 to 1/25 of a second
  • Using the Micro expressions guild ( used for law enforcement, and CSI mostly), one can study how to detect these lies, however it does not tell you why a person uses them.
  • If anyone would like to get this tool, you can buy  the training videos online for a little over 70.00.
  • Go to https://face.paulekman.com/face/about.aspx
  • A false expression can be betrayed in a number of ways: it is usually very slightly asymmetrical, and it lacks smoothness in the way it flows on and off the face.

Eye Cues

Up and to the Left
Indicates: Visually Constructed Images (Vc)
If you asked someone to "Imagine a purple buffalo", this would be the direction their eyes moved in while thinking about the question as they "Visually Constructed" a purple buffalo in their mind

Up and to the Right
Indicates: Visually Remembered Images (Vr)
If you asked someone to "What color was the first house you lived in?", this would be the direction their eyes moved in while thinking about the question as they "Visually Remembered" the color of their childhood home.

To the Left
Indicates: Auditory Constructed (Ac)
If you asked someone to "Try and create the highest the sound of the pitch possible in your head", this would be the direction their eyes moved in while thinking about the question as they "Auditorily Constructed" this this sound that they have never heard of.

To the Right
Indicates: Auditory Remembered (Ar)
If you asked someone to "Remember what their mother's voice sounds like ", this would be the direction their eyes moved in while thinking about the question as they "Auditory Remembered " this sound

Down and to the Left
Indicates: Feeling / Kinesthetic (F)
If you asked someone to "Can you remember the smell of a campfire? ", this would be the direction their eyes moved in while thinking about the question as they used recalled a smell, feeling, or taste.

Down and To the Right
Indicates: Internal Dialog (Ai)
This is the direction of someone eyes as they "talk to themselves".

  • Example: Let's say your child asks you for a cookie, and you ask:
  •  "Well, what did your mother say?"
  • As they reply "Mom said... yes.", they look to the left.
  • What indication would that give you?
  •  This would indicate a made up answer as their eyes are showing a "constructed image or sound.
  •  Looking to the right would indicated a "remembered" voice or image, and thus would be telling the truth

Daniel Goleman

  • Born in Stockton, California, on March 7, 1946
  • Went to Harvard
  • Still alive!!!!

Emotional Intelligence

  • Four Branches
  • Perceiving Emotions: The first step in understanding emotions is to accurately perceive them. In many cases, this might involve understanding nonverbal signals such as body language and facial expressions
  • Reasoning With Emotions: The next step involves using emotions to promote thinking and cognitive activity. Emotions help prioritize what we pay attention and react to; we respond emotionally to things that garner our attention
  • Understanding Emotions: The emotions that we perceive can carry a wide variety of meanings. If someone is expressing angry emotions, the observer must interpret the cause of their anger and what it might mean. For example, if your boss is acting angry, it might mean that he is dissatisfied with your work; or it could be because he got a speeding ticket on his way to work that morning or that he's been fighting with his wife.
  • Managing Emotions: The ability to manage emotions effectively is a key part of emotional intelligence. Regulating emotions, responding appropriately and responding to the emotions of others are all important aspect of emotional management.
  • Believed that all emotions  lead to self as well as social awareness. This also lead to management of the self

Sample Questions for Emotional Test

  • I stay focused (not lost in unimportant details or procrastination) in getting a job done.
  • I calm myself quickly when I get angry or upset.
  • I am aware of how my behavior impacts others.
  • I can pull myself together quickly after a setback.
  • To take this test go to