ASSIGNMENT #1: (in a short coupon bond/ handwritten or computerized)
1. Define Computer.
2. Identify the capabilities of computer.
3. Identify the limitations of computer.
4. Differentiate the different application of computer in various fields.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Definition of Computer
- A computer is an electronic machine which accepts information called DATA for processing.
- A computer can perform operations by giving instructions or set of instructions valid under a computer software using language acceptable to the computer.
- A computer has the capability to do mathematical operations, logical operation and word processing.
- A computer has the ability to store and save file and can be retrieved for future use.
- A computer can produce results in the form of meaningful and useful output.
A computer is a special type of electronic calculating device processing internal storage capabilities that performs mathematical and logical operations on the data within its central processing unit (CPU) based on a set of program instructions or language and produce results in the form of meaningful and useful output.
CAPABILITIES OF COMPUTERS
- SPEED – the computer can process data faster than any other machine designed to perform a similar (approx. 50 million per second)
- REPETITIVENESS – a computer can perform the same operation millions of times in exactly the same way. Then capabilities to handle large volumes of repetitive tasks accurately over long period of times.
- ACCURACY – a computer’s high speed processing gives 99% error free results. The ability to perform the operations of almost perfect reliability and accuracy.
- LOGICAL OPERATIONS – the computer can make decisions based on alternative course of action. The decision are, however dependent on the choices prepared for it by the programmer. Computer can add, subtract, multiply and divide. Just as well it can determine whether a number of positive, negative or zero. Its logical ability to compromise whether its capabilities to compare two numbers and decide whether one variable is greater than, equal to or less than.
- STORE AND RETRIVE INFORMATIONS – computer can stores information in the memory and use them when needed.
LIMITATIONS OF COMPUTERS
- A computer cannot generate information on its own. It needs someone to feed the data for processing. Computer is basically subject to human control. Actually, it is not the computer that is the culprit, but the human beings who are responsible for the operation, control and direction of the computer.
A computer is nothing more than a piece of electronic equipment that can be manipulated by a man to achieve his goals.
- A computer can detect but generally cannot correct on its own an inaccurate entry. A computer cannot correct wrong instructions. It does not have the “common sense” to correct the incorrect data or instructions, but it can inform you that there is an error.
- Computer cannot combine ideas or take the best parts or several ideas to come up with a brand new idea on its own.
- Computers need periodic maintenance support.
- A computer is subject to occasional breakdown normally due to power failure or power fluctuations.
DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTERS IN VARIOUS FIELDS
- HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL – high school students should be provided with a general computer literacy before any specific courses in computer application. It is recommended that such a computer literacy course introduces the high students to the components of the computer and various applications, classifications of computers, generations and historical background and the importance of computer in our day to day life.
- SECRETARIAL FIELD – The computer and the other electronic device have altered the speed, quality and complexity of all the office workers, especially that of a secretary.
- ENGINEERING FIELD – Computers serves as reliable tools in performing various engineering works such as a building structures, mixing chemicals and manufacturing equipment and even in producing electronic devices.
- ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT – Computer can be used extensively in this area which include purchasing, payable, production fund control, marketing, billing, receivable, payroll financial reports and all accounting systems and control.
- PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT – computers can be very useful in this area such as processing employees employment record, time record, labor distribution, withholding tax recording, and sick leave, absences/attendance record.
- BANKS – are finding great usefulness for computer like in the automatic payroll deposit, pre-authorized bill payments, electronic fund transfer system, deposits and withdrawal controls.
- AIRLINES – also rely on computer from billing seats and creating safe traffic patterns. Through the computer they are able to determine your destination and the possible flights on which seats are still available.
- SALES – in the form of electronic cash registers which can do more than just ring up sales. They can keep wide range of records, including that made the sales, what was sold, when and to whom also whether the sales was made in cash or on credit.
- EDUCATION – particularly in the administration of schools and providing effective service especially in keeping an updated list of students specifying their courses, subject loads, accounts balances units and grades obtained.
- CHURCHES – computers can also be used in keeping records of donations, community projects and other charitable projects undertaken, including the feedback from the community members.
- AGRICULTURE – computers can help in selecting healthy breed of animals for successful and effective cross breeding.
- MEDICINE – can analyze blood test and perform other diagnostic procedures faster and with better accuracy than human technician.
- ARTS – computer technology is used in the recording industry to modify sounds, revitalize historic recordings and to produce larger-than-concert-hall sounds. Film animations, titles and credits for movies and television are today commonly produced by computers.
- COMMUNICATIONS – Every time you pick up a telephone you set a computer in action. Computers are being used in direct distance calls. Newspapers, publishers also find the computer useful in setting the types, keeping the columns straight and in mechanically syllabicating words.
- MILITARY NETWORK - to safeguard the nation security. Vast communication networks provide communication links, messages switching services. The network maybe tied with sophisticated detection and control systems such as radar, guidance, heat and light, sensor, satellites.
- GOVERNMENT AGENCIES – computers are used for record keeping in all levels of government agencies.
July 10, 2012
CHAPTER 2 DATA PROCESSING
Definition of Terms
DATA – is a raw material that is used as input to a data processing system. The data goes through a series of planned activities processing to produce a desired result which is output..
Ex. Of Data: Customer’s Name, Addresses and Inventory figures, daily collection figures, names of employees and related facts and figures.
Data is of little value if it remains in the form of quantities and numbers in a disorganized form.
In other words, data is defined as raw facts that need to be processed so that information is defined as processed and meaningful data.
DATA PROCESSING – is the arrangement of data into a more understandable and useful form.
Data processing involves: Collecting, processing distributing and summarizing of facts and figures to achieve the desired results.
Pay checks to employees
Payroll reports to managers
Data Processing includes: Numerical calculations and Classification of data and transmission of data from one place to another. These operations are performed using machines like Computers, although some operations can be carried out manually.
DATA PROCESSING is therefore defined as the arranging of related data in an organized manner in order to provide useful information.
INFORMATION – is the RESULT we get when the words, numbers and symbols are organized so that they have MEANING and USEFULNESS.
Characteristics of Information
The value of information is relates to how it can reduce uncertainly, help managers make better decisions, and assist the organizations as a whole, in reaching its goals, such as increased profits.
To be real use to managers, information should be:
BASIC DATA PROCESSING CYCLE
Before the final report is prepared, the data to be used in report must follow a series of steps called the DATA PROCESSING CYCLE. Regardless of the method used, the steps in data processing cycle are:
1. Origin of Data
STEP 1: ORIGIN OF DATA - is the initial capture of raw data, facts or figure or some form of document whenever a transaction occurs.
1. Origin means the beginning or start of something.
2. In business the data to be process originates in a variety of business papers sources.
3. Source documents refer to the business papers used to record data for the first time.
4. Examples of source code document: when you go to a store to buy a stereo on a charge account, the sales clerk fills out a sales slip work your name and address, telephone number, description of the item you bought and the price. The data written on sales slip is the origin of the data recorded on the source document which is the sale slip.
5. Other source document may include invoices, time, cards or checks.
STEP 2: INPUT – sources are collected and converted into a form acceptable for processing that is recorded in the same form that the machine can read.
1. The data recorded for processing is called input.
2. The input of data from the source document is recorded is such form that it can be easily processed.
3. If the input is to be processed automatically by electronic equipment, the step may involved putting the information about the sale is a Sales Journal so that the store can get a total sales of figure for the month.
4. If the input is to be processed automatically by electronic equipment, the step will involve recording the data from the source document into card, tapes or diskettes so that it can be processed on electronic.
STEP 3: PROCESSING – is the manipulating or processing of data which consist of the actual operations performed on the input.
1. CLASSIFYING – is the process of identifying and grouping data that consist of the actual operations performed on the input.
2. SORTING – physical arrangement of the data to chronological order, that is alphabetically (from A to Z or from Z to A) and numerically (from lowest to vice-versa).
3. CALCULATING – consist of performing one or more arithmetic operations of data.
4. RECORDING – related to the documentation of intermediate figures and facts resulting from calculation.
5. SUMMARIZING – is the presentation of data in a compressed and meaningful manner.
STEP 4: OUTPUT – is the presentation of data in a compressed and meaningful manner.
1. The final step in the data processing cycle provides the output of data.
2. In this step, the information that has been processed is organized and arranged in a usable form.
3. The printed statement of account can be called an output because it contains information useful for the customer and the company well.
EXPANDED DATA PROCESSING
There are two (2) more steps needed in order to complete the Data Processing Cycle.
1. DISTRIBUTION – This step refers to the distribution of the useful information. The output data is called REPORT DOCUMENT. For example the FINANCIAL REPORT DOCUMENT prepared by the Accounting Department may be forwarded to the president to serve as direction guidelines for wise decision making and smooth flow of operational throughout the company.
2. STORAGE – Information provided by the output cycle is placed in storage for future use and can be used for further processing at a later date.
TYPES OF DATA PROCESSING
1. MANUAL DATA PROCESSING – Processing of data by means of human labor.
2. ELECTRO-MECHANICAL DATA PROCESSING – Processing of data with the use of electromechanical machines such as typewriter, adding machine, calculator. Majority of the work is done by man.
3. ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING – Processing of data with the use of the computer and require less human intervention.
Chapters 3 to follow...
CHAPTER 4 ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM
Essential Elements of a CS
- HARDWARE – refers to the physical components (equipment, machine) that perform the function of data preparation, data input, data manipulation, data storage and output of information.
- SOFTWARE – refers to the collection of programs and operating aids associated with a computer that facilitate its programming capabilities. Programs and operating aids referred to as software.
(2) Two major types
1. Application Software – are designed to solve problems or perform a specific job requirements of the individual.
2. System Software – normally provided by the manufacturer or programming specialist to make entire computer system work efficiently.
- KNOW WARE - (Procedure) refers to how things can be done or accomplished in a feasibility efficient and effective manner.
- PEOPLEWARE – refers to the people that perform numerous activities like programming, computer operation and others are required to prepare and execute the data processing function. Peopleware are the people who keep the hardware, software, know ware efficiency coordinated and effectively
- EDP MANAGER – refers to the personnel in the EDP center.
- SYSTEM ANALYST – concerned with the broader aspect of the total information needs of the organization it serves.
- COMPUTER PROGRAMMER – responsible to take the detailed specification of the problem to be solve and the plans developed by the system analyst and write the actual instructions that the computer operator to produce the desired reports and inputs.
- DATA ENTRY OPERATOR –operates data entry machine which converts human readable data into a form that computer can understand.
- COMPUTER OPERATOR – operates or runs all equipment that is associated with the computer system.
- OPERATOR CONTROL PERSONNEL – consists of data controller, librarian and schedulers.
f 1. DATACONTROLLER – check if all the data entered in the computer system processed completely, accurate and in a timely manner.
f 2. Librarian – keeps records and traces of materials used in an organized manner.
f 3. SCHEDULER – plain and time a certain job that will be run in the computer.
- FIRMWARE – a micro program residing in a main storage memory which has many qualities of conventional software.
- TELECOMMUNICATION – component allow organization to link computer system together into network; Network of computer are related equipment allow users to share software and data throughout a building across the country or around the world.
TYPES OF COMPUTER FACILITIES
- CENTRALIZED DATA PROCESSING - In centralized data processing, there is only one central computer facility which provides computer services to all users within the whole company.
- The computer staff is required to services all the users within the whole company.
- Since computer specialist work as a group, data processing procedures become more professional; better supervision of activities.
- Reduces duplication of effort.
- The computer staff is required to service all departments; knowledge of user needs, therefore, is limited. The arrangement contributes to the communication gap between user departments and the computer staff.
- It is difficult to assess each user’s data processing needs and to determine the actual computer cost to attributes to each department.
- It is difficult to determine priorities for computer use.
- Management-level resistance to the data processing exists because control of activities in the hands of Data Processing Manager.
- DECENTRALIZED DATA PROCESSING – Processing units, usually microcomputers, minicomputers or small computer system, are placed at various locations within the organization (different department). Each processing unit functions independently with its own equipment and support staff.
- Direct control by the users minimizes the traditional communication gap computer professional better understand the department’s needs.
- More direct response to user needs; no pressure from other department.
- There is a duplication of files, processing and reporting.
- Lack of standardization exists.
- May cost more.
- DISTRIBUTED DATA PROCESSING – Another type of data processing concept that has been developed attempts to capture the advantages of both centralized and decentralized data processing system, while eliminating some of the disadvantages. This configuration is called distributed data processing system.
Types of distributed processing network
The arrangement of terminal, modems, lines and main storage memory can take on many different forms.
- POINT-TO-POINT NETWORK – In a typical point to point network, to computers. Online to one another, form the network. Terminals are connected to each computer.
2. STAR NETWORK – a star network consists of a central host computer connected to one terminal resembling a star.
TYPES OF PROCESSING
A basic principle of data processing is that different applications require different kind system.
- BATCH PROCESSING – the data processing by the computer is performed periodically and specific time intervals (weekly, monthly, etc.) when large volumes, or batches are accumulated.
- ONLINE REAL TIME – one or more terminals are in direct contact with the main storage memory, usually by wire, cable or telephone line. Information is entered directly into the computer at the instant it occurs.
TIME SHARING – in this system, several terminals and other devices can use the computer system at the same time. The operating systems allows the main storage memory to contact each of its online terminals and frequent intervals to determine which is ready to communicate