Climate of Two Cities
February 25, 2011
Name: __________________Date: ________Class: _________________
Procedure: Select 2 cities, one in the northern hemisphere and one in the southern hemisphere, and collect 30 days worth of weather data.
You are encouraged to choose two places that have some geographical similarities such as proximity to a body of water, whether or not the city is
located on a west coast, east coast, or is land-locked, common altitude, etc. There are a number of similarities that you could use. Check with your
teacher if you are not sure about your choices. After 30 days, using Excel create a spreadsheet to organize your data. Once complete, generate the
following graphs on the computer: (You must use both cities for graphs below)
1. a double line graph for each city showing daily high and low temperatures for 4 weeks.(2 graphs)
2. a single line graph for one city showing average daily air pressure for 4 weeks.(1 graph)
3. a double line graph for each city showing average daily temperature and average pressure for each day (2 graphs) * Please color-code your graph and provide a legend.
4. a pie graph for each city showing what % of the 30 days was a. Sunny b. rainy c. cloudy d. any other conditions you recorded (2 graphs)
5. a double bar graph showing average relative humidity per week
6. a double line graph comparing NH city high temps to SH city high temps
7. a double line graph comparing NH city low temps to SH city low temps
8. A line graph showing AVERAGE Monthly precipitation for 30 months
You must generate 1 additional computer graph of your choice.
Each graph must compare NH data to SH data. Please provide a paragraph rationale for your selection that explains what the graph is illustrating
and possible explanations for what is observed. Remember, each graph must have labels, units, title, intervals marked, and a data table.
Paragraph Rationales: Paragraphs will need to include appropriate vocabulary properly used in explanations.In the first paragraph, you must
· the variables that govern the local weather such as geography
· the types of air masses that originate over the area;
· the generalized climate for the area
· the wind belts and ocean currents contributing to the weather
· Analysis of the 30 day weather-is the weather observed typical of the area and how do you know?
· Be sure that you refer to your graphs in your writings
In the 2nd paragraph, you must explain
- Using comparative language, describe how weather changes throughout the year in both cities.
- How is climate projected to change over the next 50 -100 years
- How will climate changes affect the local weather patterns, if at allRubric1. 30 days of data for 2 cities 50 pts2. 12 graphs as listed above 15 pts each3. Graphing technical points 5 pts each graph4. 2 paragraph rationales 100 pts each
March 18, 2010
Current Weather Conditions
Forecast for Next Day
Current Weather Conditions
Forecast for Next Day
March 12, 2010
Helpful Hints for Analyzing Weather Maps
Recording the past is always easier than predicting the future. When it comes to weather forecasting, an understanding of the mechanics of weather, access to information about past weather events, and a knowledge of the region all contribute to increase the accuracy of predicting tomorrow's weather. Below, you will find some helpful definitions and websites to use for your mapping lab.
Today, you are completing Part II of your weather Project. Some of you do not have all your maps and summaries. There will be a penalty deduction for this negligence on your part. You have known about this assignment since January 25th.
Directions: You need to obtain the following:
Blank Maps of the US
Analysis Questions and Conclusions
Computer to share
A Set of Maps: Either March 1-5 or March 8-10
In addition: you should go to the sites below and observe how the newspaper maps you have were developed and the amount of data that it took to make them. You are to go to each site and glean any information you can to help you answer your questions and make your summaries beyond descriptions. You should be focusing on the relationships of the weather variable with one another--not just telling about the pictures. Think: Compare: Contrast: Sequencing: Cause and Effect----yes thinking maps. Incorporating a Multi-flow map or double bubble, or Flow Map will get you extra credit in your final summary. *Do not freak---this part is to be turned in on Tuesday, March 16.
Make a list of words you find in the discussions that you are not familiar with like the two listed below. You will need to know these
words for Part III when you observe the meteorlogists. Many of the sites listed below give definitions. Also, do not forget about WW2010-
lots of good information and explanations of meteorological phenomenon.
Trough An elongated area of relatively low atmospheric pressure, usually not associated with a closed circulation, and thus
used to distinguish from a closed low. The opposite of ridge.
Ridge An elongated area of relatively high atmospheric pressure; the opposite of trough.
http://www.weathermap.us/ Good summary of weather mapshttp://www.bom.gov.au/nmoc/MSL/WeatherMap.shtml Good summary of weather maps (Beware: Southern Hemisphere descriptions being used)
http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/ The National Forecast is issued twice daily, at 5am EST (1000 UTC) and 5pm EST (2200 UTC).
HPC Archive of the National Forecast Chart
http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/dailywxmap/pdffiles.html Archived data daily weather maps
http://www.ametsoc.org/amsedu/dstreme/ Discussions based upon the major features appearing on the surface weather maps
http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/discussions/pmdspd.html An even better site for daily discussions of the weather
At This site, you are to complete questions 1-13 and turn this in with your Part III. IT IS NOT DUE TODAY!!
7 KEY FORECAST VARIABLES
Wind is always reported as where it is coming from.
A north wind means from the north and therefore most likely cooler temps.
A south wind means from the south and therefore most likely warmer temps.
Clouds prevent incoming sunlight while preventing outgoing radiation overnight.
When all other factors are considered:
Clouds during the day cause cooler afternoon temps.
Clouds overnight cause warmer morning temps.
Wind has a moderating effect on temps. Assuming no major air mass changes (no
fronts) and when considering all other factors:
Windy nights are warmer and windy days are cooler.
Calm nights are cooler and calm days are warmer.
Thickness values relate to air density which is primarily due to the average air
temperature in the lower troposphere.
Higher thickness indicate a warmer lower atmosphere.
Lower thickness indicate a cooler lower atmosphere.
850 mb T:
Temperature of the air near 5,000 ft. above sea level. Rapidly changing values
indicate an air mass change, and most likely a frontal passage.
Air temperature cannot drop below the dewpoint value. Therefore, dewpoints help
to forecast the lowest possible temperature overnight. Dewpoints do NOT
influence daily high temps.
Air pressure changes can signify the passage of weather systems, including
weather fronts. Typically, pressure falls fairly rapidly before the arrival of a cold
or warm front. After a cold frontal passage, pressure normally rises rapidly due to
an increase in air density. After a warm frontal passage, air pressure may remain
constant or fall even lower due to a lower air density.
Assignment for Friday, Feb.5, 2010
Assignment for Thursday, Feb4 for 3rd period 09-10
Go to the site below:
1. Read the case study, take notes and make sure you go to the hyperlinked extra information
2. In the left hand menu column: open the step by step instructions and do each step
3. Read over the GOING Further and surf that site.
HW Assignment: Classzone: 2013
to get daily weather maps from the Daily Reflector
>> User Name: DHConley
>> Password: vikings
SOURCE FOR INFORMATION
HIGH/LOW TEMP 0 CELSIUS
(TYPE AND AMOUNT)
Vocab Words for Honors Earth Chapters 8-11
Vocabulary list for Chapters 8-11
1) Earthquake 2)Epicenter 3 ) Moment magnitude 4) Seismograph 5) Elastic rebound
6)hypothesis 7) Seismic (Earthquake) waves 8)Moho 9) liquidfaction
Chapter 9 Vocab words
1) Continental drift 2) Pangea 3) plate tectonics 4) 3 types of boundaries
5) oceanic ridge 6) seafloor spreading 7) volcanic arcs 8) hot spot
9) convective flow 10) mantle plume
Chapter 10 Vocab Words
1) Viscosity 2) pyroclastic materials 3) volcano types 4) caldera 5)pluton 6) laccolith
7) batholiths 8) decompression melting 9) intraplate volcanism
Chapter 11 Vocab Words
1) Deformation 2) stress 3) strain 4) All the ‘clines’ sny, 5)anti, and 6)mono 5) All the “Faults”
7)normal, 8) reverse, 9) thrust, and 10)strike slip 11) orogenesis 12)folded mountain,
13) fault-block and 14) uplifted mountain 15) isostasy
3rd Period Honors Earth Environmental
For Wednesday, December 2, 2009
Today you will begin your background research about mechanical and chemical weathering processes. An excellent site to begin your investigations would be:
Be Sure to Read this entire website and look at all the images: there are examples to help you determine the type of weathering.
Read this information that describes the scientific observation of gravestones as an indicator of the rate and amount of weathering in a particular region. You are to develop a formal lab write-up with a page or two of research background information along with data collected using video or digital cameras of natural materials such as those found in gravestones and other buildings or statues.
Weathering Scavenger Hunt
Weathering can be seen all around us. We can see physical and chemical weathering everywhere we look. Your assignment is to go on a scavenger hunt to find the different types of weathering that we have discussed in class. Collect your evidence by taking pictures (you should be in your picture) and present your evidence in lab format style in a 3-ring notebook. You need to collect and label all data (pictures).
2.01: Analyze the dependence of the physical properties of minerals on the arrangement and bonding of their atoms.
2.03: Investigate and analyze the processes responsible for the rock cycle.
The textbook and slide presentation discussed all the types of weathering, both physical and chemical. You are to find at least two examples of every type you can. You will need to ride around Pitt County and take photographs of the different types of weathering . You must take two different photographs of each types. Your photographs should clearly show the effects of the agent of weathering. Be sure to label each photograph, telling location and evidence shown , etc. Refer to the lab we did in Class about My School is Corroding.
Go to different cemeteries and find at least 4 different tombstones. They should be 4-sided and show signs of Weathering. On a data table, record your observations about each side of the tombstone. Determine which side weathered the most if any and explain why. Take two pictures that support your observations. Write a paragraph conclusion concerning the direction of exposure on the type of weathering and the rate of weathering. Be sure to include a photograph of the Cemetery Name.
Photograph and write observations about an EXTREME EXAMPLE of EROSION somewhere. If Pitt County is the only place you go in the next two weeks, then photograph a Pitt County example. If you travel to the BEACH or The Lake, or some other part of the state, then you may use that area. Remember, EROSION is NOT Weathering.
Formal Lab Write-Up Format
Ø Organization and Neatness of the Report.Is the report orderly, neat and concise?Was the proper format used?Type and use proper grammar. Points will be taken off for misspelled words and incorrect grammar
Ø Introduction/Background/PurposeThis is a minimum two page paper that discusses background information and the purpose of the lab. DO NOT simply copy the information on your lab instruction sheet. Include in this section any knowledge or observations . This should be relevant information to your topic and connected to the question you will be asking. Write the question that is relevant to the objective. This must be a testable question. Explain the concepts and vocabulary that will be used in the lab. Include the necessary reactions and/or equations for the lab. The hypothesis is written in the form of a statement that starts with “If … and… then…” It should attempt to answer the problem statement above. Be sure to include the dependent and independent variables in your answer.State what you think is going to happen, then a brief description of the experiment, followed by an explanation of why you think this will happen. Some scientific terms should be included.
Ø Procedures What steps are in the lab activity, IN YOUR OWN WORDS. Write the steps you do, in a numbered list, to solve your problem. It should be specific enough that anyone in the class could follow the steps and do the lab successfullyDraw pictures as appropriate! You may need to draw the apparatus in order to refer to it later during discussion. Give any important safety information and include the materials used.Mention the particular pitfalls in data taking that you discovered and managed to maneuver around.
Ø Observations/Data This would be written observations from the actual lab or recorded measured values on a data table that is made in class or given out. Are the observations you witnessed described? Qualitative as well as quantitative? Are data for this lab listed neatly and completely in a data table or tables?Do the photographs support your original question about : What types of weathering are most prevalent in Pitt County?
Ø Data Analysis/Graphs This should include tables, graphs, and/or pictures that are appropriate to answering the question which will aid in solving the problem. Be sure that your graphs, tables, figures, or diagrams are neatly, completely and properly labeled with a complete title. You may create a graph on your computer – or neatly hand draw one.All tables and graphs need to be labeled appropriately with full titles and units. Include title, labeled axes, smooth lines through experimental data points, and slope calculations. Each graph should convey a complete message and be fully understandable without referring to any other section in the report. Be sure to reference the data table the graph was made from.If you need to use the lab data to calculate further, include a few of your calculations in this section, e.g. one of each type. Do not show each and every calculation. Are the calculations used in the experiment included and correctly done? Show all work (formula, number substitution etc) INCLUDE UNITS.
Ø Analysis of Experiment This section contains the answers to the lab questions. Each question should be numbered and answered in complete sentences; restate the question in your answer, or write the question and then the answer.
Ø ConclusionThis must be done in complete sentences and in paragraph form. You will need to write about:1) What happened in the lab – was your hypothesis right or wrong2) What you learned 3) What errors might have been made and how could that be fixed4) What are the real life applications Explain how the lab observations and results brought the concepts together. What can you claim from your results and what evidence leads you to make your claim? This explanation needs to include relevant scientific concepts and vocabulary. This is also the place to mention any unanswered questions or any errors that occurred during the lab. Title final experimental results, standard or accepted values, if they exist, and percent errors and/or percent differences. This is a very important section of the lab! It is here that it becomes clear whether your data agree with the accepted value(s) or are self-consistent. Are possible sources of error described? What could have been done to lessen error? How would you do it differently next time?
|Distinguished (3)||Satisfactory (2)||Borderline (1)||Unsatisfactory (0)|
|Title Page||Contains title, name, date, course, teacher, period.||Missing one except title or name.||Missing two except title or name.||Missing more than two, or title or name.|
|Sequence||Logically sequenced: Background/Research, Question, Hypoth., Test, Mater./Proc., Data, Anal./Conclusion. All present.||Not more than one category missing or out of sequence.||Not more than 2 categories missing or out of sequence.||More than 2 categories missing or out of sequence.|
|Clarity||Lab report sections clearly distinct from each other; grammatically correct English; figures/graphs correctly titled & labeled.||Sections clearly labeled but not separated; English generally correct; figures/graphs correctly labeled but not titled.||Sections labeled but not separated; frequent errors in grammar; figures/graphs labeled but contain errors in units, axes or headings.||Sections not labeled nor separated; English poor; figures/graphs not titled nor labeled.|
|Design||Clear step-by-step description of experimental procedures; labeled diagrams/drawings of any apparatuses/devices used to carry out the experiment.||Step-by-step description that misses not more than one key detail; diagrams/drawings included but not labeled||Step-by-step description that misses not more than two key details; apparatuses/devices mentioned but not shown.||Description lacks more than two key details; no mention of apparatuses/devices used to carry out the experiment.|
|Detail||Includes formulas/calculations used to analyze data & explains their use. Records observations and explains their import. All original data included.||Includes formulas and calculations used to analyze data. Records observations, sometimes their import. Most original data included.||Includes formulas and some calculations used to analyze data. Records some observations. Some original data included.||Does not include formulas nor calculations used to analyze data. No observations noted. Original data not present.|
|Data Manipulation||Calculations clearly laid out. Dimensional analysis/Math correct. Figures display data correctly, all variables labeled.||Calculations contain few errors in dimensional analysis or math. Figures correct, variables unlabeled.||Calculations contain some errors in diminsional analysis or math. Figures correct. No labels or legend.||Dimensional is analysis not used. Math not shown. Figures display data incorrectly.|
|Framework||Restates the hypothesis, supports or refutes it and explains the role of the test in making the decision.||Restates the hypothesis and supports or refutes it.||Supports or refutes the hypothesis without restating it.||Does not address the hypothesis.|
|Evidence||Uses data powerfully as evidence to support statements.||Uses data to support statements.||Refers to data in the body of the report as support.||Does not use data to support arguments|
|Logic||Conclusion is logically forced from data and prior knowledge.||Conclusion is logical but not thoroughly defended.||The conclusion is logical but poorly defended||The conclusion is incorrect.|
|Error||Identifies sources of error and explains effect on results.||Identifies sources of error.||Suggests possibility of error but identifies no sources.||Does not address possibility of error.|
|Context||The expt. is made meaningful by discussion of its scientific or societal implications; proposals for further investigation are made.||An application or use of the work is provided; a proposal for further investigation is made.||The work is generally ascribed to be useful but no rationale is provided for thinking so.||No relevance is provided for the work.|
ASSIGNMENT FOR WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 9, 2009
The goal of this Webquest is to investigate and research groundwater, aquifers, and the status of the specific aquifers of Pitt County. Students are required to research any and all details of the types of aquifers in our area in order to build their understanding of this topic as a physical model representing their idea of groundwater stores in Pitt County. The following statements and questions are to be discussed in detail with pictures and examples recorded to help students develop their models of what's underground in Pitt County. The more detailed and media - rich the answers are, the better the grade on the webquest.
Written report and physical model due: Monday, January 4, 2010 1. What is the difference between recharge and discharge in relation to an aquifer?2. What are the six types of permeable geologic material? (nationatlas.gov/wallmaps.html#aquifers or capp.water.usgs.gov/)3. What is the name and description of the Major aquifer system of the Coastal Plain region? What is a confining unit?4. What are the major objectives for the 24 principal aquifers as described by the United States Geological Survey?5. Analyze changes in water level of the different aquifers of the Coastal Plains unit. (ncwater.org)6. Examine data that shows changes in the water levels of the principal aquifer systems in our local water supply. For a time period, document whether water levels have changed and give possible explanations.7. Name and show pictures of the different aquifers of Pitt County. Describe the type of sediment or geologic formations.8. Be able to locate Pitt County observation wells that collect data for the USGS and the North Carolina DWR on Pitt County topographic maps and interpret the hydrogeologic data from these wells.9. Describe a possible recharge and discharge scenario depicting the current situation in Pitt County and the other 8 counties in our Coastal Plains unit. Be sure to consider factors such as precipitation, population changes, and water use breakdown.10. Assume the following; 15 trillion gallons in an average aquiferPeople use 150 gallons of water on average per person/day
Calculate an estimate of the number of people who could get all the water they needed from this aquifer if they lived on average to be 80 years old
11. Where does your personal water travel to and from? Be sure to include all possible interactions between the earth systems.
12. How do we study and know about all this under the ground stuff we cannot see? This should be a focus from questions 1-14.J