World History, 9B, The Industrial Revolution


Assignment Six
The Industrial Revolution
Deadline, Jan. 8, 100 points

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web site for History 9B.




How did the Industrial Revolution affect the 1700s and how does it still affect our world?

Industrial Revolution

Image of early railroads


Between 1700 and 1800 Britain became the leader of the Industrial Revolution. This revolution was the movement from man, wind and animal powered small cottage industry to massive factories powered by coal and made of steel-based equipment.

This truly was a revolution because it changed the ways people lived. We may take it for granted today, but this change swept across the European-centered worldThe effects of the Industrial Revolution are part of our everyday lives today.


Students will identify and explain the causes and effects of one aspect of the Industrial Revolution from the list given below.

Essential questions

  1. How and when did your topic begin to be important to the Industrial Revolution?
  2. What were the biggest changes that influenced it?
  3. Describe its longlasting impacts - all the way to today.

    It would be an excellent idea to incorporate an explanatory graphic or two into your presentation.

Special instructions

You will create a short, but thorough presentation that answers the above questions about the topic you choose. You will also create an essay of a few paragraphs that summarizes the above. You will email those paragraphs to me and they will be posted at the bottom of this web page. You will also email the link to your presentation to me and I will post it above the essays.

Your total class time for your presentation will be about 5 minutes.

You may work in groups of four or less. You are not required to work in a group.

i do not have a minumum number of slides, but you need to make you sure you thoroughly answer the essential questions. I do not think you will need more than six or seven slides, but if you need more, please feel free to do so.

Here is the list of topics.

  • Textile Industry
  • Steel Industry
  • Enclosure Movement
  • Making power portable
  • Transportation Improvement - especially railroads

When you are done with your presentation, share it with me at

You may work in groups of no more than four.








Presentation Rubric
Is each answer complete? Is the language use correct and easy to follow?
33 points possible per answer

Are the answers essentially correct, but key points are missing? Is the language use correct and easy to follow?
26 points possible per answer

Do the answers use generic statements without clear conclusions and are the points vague and difficult to understand? Is the language use obscure and does it contain frequent errors?
22 points possible per answer

Are the answers random and vague? Does the language use containg frequent errors? Are the answers pointless statement that could be applied under any set of circumstances?
18 points or less per answer


Presentation Paragraphs


The iron and steel industry, Kade

My slide is about the improvement of making iron and steel better wich started with inventing coke and then mass producing iron and then steel and using it to shape are world my slide talks about the history of the invention of iron and steel 
And how it was used and mass produced


Textile Industry, Megan and Ashton

Textile Industry 
How and when did your topic begin to be important to the Industrial Revolution?
The textile industry was one of the first major industries to begin. It started in the 1820’s and just progressed from there. It makes sense that it came first because if it wouldn’t have who knows how long people Would have gone without having better clothing, better shoes and even more things. 
This industry is very important because it made clothing for even middle class increase. even people’s home decorations increased because they began to make curtains throw pillows and much more.

What were the biggest changes that influenced it?                                             
This changed mainly because they realized there was a machine to make making clothes much easier. and more efficient it also produced better clothes in general with higher quality.
As it began they first still used paid employees as part of making the clothes. But by the 1830’s they were doing it all by the machine. There for many people were out of jobs, although it was a very good thing.

Describe its long lasting impacts - all the way to today.                                        
The main long lasting item I can think of we still use every day are clothes and shoes. that are made very similar to how the machines made them back in the 1830’s. Even though our clothes still have advanced since then.

Another really big one today is the filter in your vacuum it’s made of similar materials. So they obviously still make things very similar but always find new things to make out of the same material. Even hot air balloons are made very similar.

Transportation Changes, Brynlee, Ben, Andrew, McKay

Transportation Improvement

1. How and when did your topic begin to be important to the Industrial Revolution? Three ways of transportation improved during the Industrial Revolution. A big portion of the revolution dependant on moving around raw goods. And with all the increased manufacturing of goods, they needed better and faster ways of transportation. Railroads were a big part of transportation that had increased during the revolution. Railroads created many jobs during that time. They needed many people to build railroads, more people to conduct the trains. There was also a huge increase in road quality and quantity. There were a bunch of new roads constructed and rebuilt. 
    Steam power became a huge thing during the industrial revolution. A Scottish engineer James Watt he started to toy with Newcomen’s models. He then added a water condenser that made the model significantly better. Steam power became a huge thing all across Europe. Because it was more efficient it could move more products faster which put them in higher demand. Steam engines.
2. What were the biggest changes that influenced it - or them? The big push for better transportation started when they wanted to transport raw materials and finished goods over long distances faster. The need for railroads got more and more important because more people started to move and live in the west, and you needed transportation to get from the east to the west. Robert Fulton was the first person to make a steamed power engine. Fairies and steam engines were very common around New York where there were lots of waterways. It was an easy way to transport goods. The problem with that was they had to make the canals wider and deeper. Another problem was that there weren’t many riverways from the east to the west. That is when trains became such a great idea because they were able to go across the country fast and cheap. 
In 1819, transportation became a big thing that needed to be improved. Then trading was rich and goods were needed to be transported to other places. Connecting western farmers to eastern markets was impossible because you couldn’t travel by boat through the Appalachian mountains. The national road was then advanced and helped transportation improve but wasn’t completely solved. Not all horse-drawn wagons would be able to travel on the roads. They were also very expensive to maintain. The steamboat was then introduced to see if that would help fix the problem with roads. Steamboats were then the more preferred way to travel by water. The steamboat was an indispensable method of trade for all seasons.
Since steamboats became popular the enthusiasm to build canals grew. The invention of steamboats made it an idea that canals were necessary and needed to be built. Growing the canal systems helped link major trading and manufacturing centers of the nation. The grid of canals spanning the North transformed the methods of commerce and manufacturing, and dramatically changed the fortunes of some towns. The canal system revolutionized American trade. Shipping costs dropped dramatically. Average freight costs from Buffalo to New York City fell from 19 cents per ton per mile.
Once canals died down railroads kicked in. Once the first railroad track was laid down the investment started to outstrip canals. Railroads helped transport goods and improved the manufacture because it was a more efficient way and faster way to transport everything. Railroads were faster, cheaper, and had greater range than canals, but still grew only gradually at first. 
 All of the different ways to travel produced more growth in towns and cities. The population had increased so much, especially in big cities. In the west, the location of factories and buildings changed dramatically. The canal system heightened the importance of lake cities. The portion of westerners living along rivers dropped from 75 to 20 percent. 
3. Describe its long-lasting impacts - all the way to today. The transportation movement has affected how we transport today. Transportation during the industrial revolution was a big deal. In the 1800s the turnpike was the name for some roads. A turnpike now might refer to a toll. One big thing the industrial revolution created that we still use today is railroads. These were used for the transportation of humans and goods. Railroads were also very important in the Civil War, by allowing the north and south to send men and equipment farther away and in less time. Because railroads can transport goods faster, the revenue in the U.S went up to seventy billion in 2014.


Transportation Improvement, Isaac
The transportation situation during the industrial revolution was fairly poor. In 1748, Pehr Kalm, a swedish explorer, said, “In Sweden the road is higher than the land around, but here exactly the opposite is the case... In this country very large wagons are used with many horses... Through many years’ driving, the wagons seem to have eaten down into the ground... to a depth of two, four, or six feet.”(Pehr Kalm, 1748)
Although the roads were poor, the waterways were improving. Canals were dug deeper and wider for bigger boats carrying goods to pass through, and after the invention of the first steam powered locomotive, the railway businesses practically exploded with work. Bigger railroad companies bought smaller companies and huge companies grew in the process.
During this exponential boom of railway transport, road conditions and railway conditions were improving as well. Turnpikes were created for easier transportation specifically for horse drawn wagons. Road surfaces consisted of crushed up rocks put in thin layers. And wooden and iron railways were replaced with long lasting steel.


Steel manufacturing, Jacob
Henry Bessemer started the Iron Industry in 1855 in a city called Anatolia. Anatolia’s more common name is asia minor. It is located in Turkey. To make steel, iron ore is first mined from the ground. It is then smelted in blast furnaces where the impurities are removed and carbon is added. In the 1800s Andrew Carnegie was the central figure of the industry and he made pitsburg the center of the industry. He sold his operations to US Steel in 1901.
Steel was so popular because it was better than steel. Steel is lighter, cheaper and stronger than Iron. It was used mainly for the improvement of making railroads and it made stronger and longer lasting tools. Today we use steel in our everyday life a lot. Steel is in Dishwashers, refrigerators, washing machines, dryers, and stoves. Steel is also used in cars, computers, eating utensils, and more. Steel is an amazing resource but it has its negative effects. Some of these negative effects include bad air emissions, hazardous waste, and solid waste.


Transportation during the Industrial Revolution, Ruby
Before the Industrial Revolution, traveling in Britain was very difficult. One way this was improved was by the invention of the railroad. The railroad allowed more coal to be moved at a time. It also preserved the products a lot better than travelling on the roads did.
The canals were also a great improvement in the transportation improvement. The canals would preserve the products a lot better than most roads. The canals also saved energy.
    The roads were in terrible shape before the Industrial Revolution. The cities didn’t keep up the roads because, once the businessmen got out of their city, they would be traveling on rough roads again. To solve this problem, some businessmen started redoing the roads. They paid people to travel on them which is how they afforded repairs. The roads were much cheaper for an average person to travel on than a railroad or canal would be.Although roads were not as popular as the canals and railroads, they were still needed.


Canal Builiding, Kevin

For over a hundred years, people had dreamed of building a canal across New York that would connect the Great Lakes to the Hudson River to New York City and the Atlantic Ocean. After unsuccessfully seeking federal government assistance, DEWITT CLINTON successfully petitioned the New York State legislature to build the canal and bring that dream to reality. “CLINTON’S DITCH,” his critics called it.

Construction began in 1817 and was completed in 1825. The canal spanned 350 miles between the Great Lakes and the Hudson River and was an immediate success. Between its completion and its closure in 1882, it returned over $121 million in revenues on an original cost of $7 million. Its success led to the great CANAL AGE. By bringing the Great Lakes within reach of a metropolitan market, the ERIE CANAL opened up the unsettled northern regions of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. It also fostered the development of many small industrial companies, whose products were used in the construction and operation of the canal.

Railroads in America can be traced back to 1815 when Colonel John Stevens gained the first charter in North America to build the New Jersey Railroad Company, although it was not constructed until 1832. The NJRR later went on to become part of the Pennsylvania Railroad’s far-reaching network. Colonel Stevens also tested the first type of steam locomotive in 1826, when he showcased his “Steam Waggon” (basically a steam-powered horse carriage) on a small circular track he had built at his estate in Hoboken, New Jersey. Later, in August of 1829 Horatio Allen, a chief engineer for the Delaware & Hudson Canal Company (which went on to become the Delaware & Hudson Railway) tested an early English steam locomotive on a 16-mile stretch of company-owned track between Honesdale and Carbondale, Pennsylvania.  The locomotive was named the Stourbridge Lion, a very simple two-axle machine with a vertical boiler.  It, along with three other similar designs, was envisioned to handle coal from the D&H mines at Carbondale to Honesdale.  Alas, only the Lion was ever tested and ultimately proved too heavy for the track, spending most of its time stored away in a shed.


Improving Transportation, Brigham, Max, Kevin

The growth of the industrial revolution depended on better ways of transportation. Three main ways of transportation was by water, roads, and railroads. Transportation was needed because people were starting to live in the west. The cheapest way to travel was by water and it was fast and good to transport goods. So making canals more accessible was the best way to improve transportation.

The invention of canals made it much more faster to travel from the Atlantic to the pacific. The lock also made it easier to bring ships to higher or lower land. The train and railroads made traveling from the Atlantic to the Pacific only a few days instead of a few weeks. Which made it easier to transport goods and people.


Transportation Improvement Summary, Hannah

I did my part of the transportation improvement project on how and why the transportation improvement began to be important to the Industrial Revolution. The transportation improvements made in mainly the 1800’s were very important to the American people and eventually the world because roads used to travel by foot, by animal, or by cart were becoming more and more unreliable and not the easiest to use. Also, people began to rely on goods and raw materials imported from other places, making the need for better transportation even more important. Layers of crushed rock were eventually used to improve the roads, however, in the spring they would be muddy, making the roads still unreliable. Horses would be used to pull cars on steel rails. As the push for better transportation continued to grow, a new invention — the first steam powered boat — was made in 1807, changing the lives of many American people for the better. Canals and rivers were widened and deepened for the assurance of more travel by the boats. The steamboats, just like the roads, soon became undependable because the places where they would stop was never set in stone. They also took more work, they took more money, and they couldn’t even be used in the winter because the water would be frozen. They needed something more. Here come the locomotives!

Trains were just what the people needed even if they didn’t know it. They would lead to faster travel for goods and people, would provide jobs for many people, and would bring growth to many people and industries. The first successful steam-powered train was made in 1814. The use of trains completely skyrocketed in the USA, therefore, railroads were built throughout the whole country. The Central Pacific line was made to connect the East and West coast’s lines. To make the locomotives even more reliable people started to replace the old wood or iron rails with steel ones and started to use different fuels like diesel. These advances in transportation were so vital to our world. These improvements eventually spread throughout the USA, Europe, and the world leaving long lasting impacts. Without trains and advances made in the 1800’s, we would not have the amazing transportation we have today.  


The iron and steel industry, Kade

My slide is about the improvement of making iron and steel better wich started with inventing coke and then mass producing iron and then steel and using it to shape are world my slide talks about the history of the invention of iron and steel 

And how it was used and mass produced






Printed files


Media files


Online files

Steel Production
1, 2, 3

Textile Production
1, 2, 3, 4

The Enclosure Movement
1, 2, 3

Making Steam Power Mobile
1, 2, 3

Transportation Improvment
1, 2, 3


Sound files