The mining consists of extracting ores, which is to say rocks from the earth's crust containing useful minerals or metals in a sufficiently interesting proportion to justify their exploitation. In this article, Roman Rubin Black Tusk Resources Inc. experts are talking about gold, whose chemical symbol is Au.
The second metallic material (after copper) to have been discovered by Man, gold is a metal which, from all time, has never ceased to fascinate, to stir up lusts, and to unleash passions.
New mining models based on the considerable progress made in security, environmental protection, mechanization, and digitization have emerged over time.
Gold mining techniques of Black Tusk
The operating phase of a mine corresponds to the period during which the ore is extracted to enhance the marketable metal (or metals) it contains. It can continue without interruption over a long period ranging from several years to several decades.
It includes both mining and ore processing and related activities.
For the extraction of gold ores, the two main techniques used are:
- the underground mine,
- and the surface mine.
The choice of mine type depends on various factors, such as the depth of the deposit, its geometry, its geological and geomorphological context, its footprint, and the costs of extraction.
The underground mine
The operation of an underground mine by Roman Rubin Black Tusk consists of extracting the ore from a deposit from shafts and galleries created under the surface of the ground, without it being necessary to remove all of the sterile materials which surmount it. In underground mines, a more selective extraction is practiced compared to that carried out in open-pit mines, the ratio between the volume of waste rock and the volume of ore extracted is also much lower.
For underground mining, a minimum amount of overburden is therefore removed to access the deposit; it corresponds to structural work, for example, ramps, descenders, galleries, wells, etc.
These provide access to the ore and set up all the necessary infrastructure to ensure aeration, dewatering, staff access, and ore evacuation.
The open-pit mine (OLS)
Open-pit mining (OLS or open pit ) is the preferred method for extracting ore from deposits located near the surface (typically between 0 and 400 m deep); the cost per tonne of ore mined is generally lower than that of ore mined using underground methods.
The choice of the open-pit method concerns:
- the possibilities of extending the pit (in height (or depth), in length, and in width);
- the geometry of the sides, in more or less high and sloping steps, in more or less wide benches, with the aim of limiting the volume of waste rock and ensuring the stability of the slopes.
One classically distinguishes, according to the disposition of the mineralized zones:
- exploration (for stratiform deposits, shallow and extending over a large horizontal surface);
- pit mining (when the deposit sinks into the subsoil and has a reduced lateral extension).
For gold ores, pit mining is the rule.
The special case of gold ores
This article is devoted to gold ores, we will only present here the types of treatments applicable to these ores.
The choice of treatment methods will depend on whether the gold is free or not, its particle size also has an impact.
The main scenarios encountered by Black Tusk are as follows:
- Ores in which the gold is free and coarse (alluvium, eluvium, oxidized vein).
Can be implemented physical and Physico-chemical treatments:
- particles> 200 μm: gravimetric (basic: jig, sluice, tables);
- particles <200 μm: gravimetric (improved base + centrifuge) and flotation (hydro and pyrometallurgy).
- Ores in which the gold is free, but finely disseminated (<< 50 μm) or included in another mineral (pyrite; arsenopyrite; sulfide zone).
- Can be applied physical and physicochemical treatments (gravimetric pre-concentration (centrifuge) and flotation), as well as chemical treatments (pre-treatment by bio-metallurgy or thermal method; hydrometallurgy (use of cyanide).
The identified qualifications and designed for the mining sector with a focus on mineral extraction of gold and coal, they become one opportunity for Roman Rubin Black Tusk to promote the development of a relevant educational offer and of quality that meets the requirements and to social, regional, and sector labor.