Science: Unit reviews are given out via worksheet. Please check your folder.
Religion: Study entire chapter. Focus heavily on highlighted facts. I will upload Unit, Advent, Christmas, and Lent Reviews as they are a great deal of information.
Vocab Workshop: Use online quiz and tools to prepare: vocabularyworkshop.com (we are the orange 2011 version)
Unit 4 in SCIENCE covers the human body systems. Some notes will be updated and provided below. Students are responsible for collecting and recording all notes and these notes may be missing information covered in class. These are a reference only. Be sure to study all copybook notes as well. Power Points will not be e-mailed for this Unit as they cover A LOT of information and we will not be taking notes on everything.
Plant Structure Notes:
- Plants are made small building blocks called cells. Different parts of a cell do different jobs.
- Ex: some cells may have the job of making food for the plant
- All plants are made up of cells.
- Make up a plant. Cells are organized into tissue and tissue is organized into organs.
C. What do plants need to survive?
- Carbon dioxide
- Minerals from the soil
- The process of making the sugar, which is the food the plant needs to survive.
- Plants make their own food!
- Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts of leaf cells.
- Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll.
- “chloro” is a Greek word for “green”. Chlorophyll makes plants green in color.
(end Quiz 1)
Parts of a Plant:
- Taproots: have one lard root (ex: dandelions, carrots, and parsnips).
- Fibrous Roots: spread out and no one root is larger or important than another.
- Root Hairs: threadlike cells on a root that take in water and minerals. Most roots have root hairs.
- A stem grows above ground level.
Carry water, minerals, and nutrients from the roots to the leaves.
Support leaves and flower.
- Types of Stems:
- Woody Stems: Are found in larger plants to give the plant extra support
- Soft, Green stems: Are found in smaller plants like the strawberry plant or
- Leaf: The main food-making part of a leaf.
- Veins: are bundles of tubes that carry water to the leaf and food from the leaf to the stem and roots.
- Epidermis: is the protective layer that keeps the leaf from drying out and losing water.
- Chlorophyll: is a green substance which traps the sun’s energy; which is used to make food.
Stomata: are tiny openings on the bottom side of the leaf, which allows gas and water vapor to pass in and out.
- Types of Leaves:
- Pinnate: Have parallel veins (running the same direction).
Example: grass, corn, tulips, and onions.
- Palmate: Have veins that branch out from the center of the leaf.
Example: maple, rose, and poinsettia leaves.
- Life Cycle of a Plant
- Seeds: an underdeveloped plant with stored food sealed in a protective covering, seed coat.
Ex: coconut seed
- Seedlings: the germination of a seed sprouting into a new, young plant.
- Mature Plant: the plant has grown enough to produce its own seeds.
- Flowers: the mature plant will produce flowers that will be pollinated by insects or wind.
Unit 3 Religion Review Sheet
The four types of prayer:
1. Praise (celebrate)
2. Sorrow (show you’re sorry)
3. Thanks (show thanks)
4. Petition (ask for something)
- Jesus often went off by himself to pray
- When we pray we lift out hearts and minds to God
- We are to love God above anyone else
- One way to keep Sunday holy is to celebrate Mass
- Sunday is the Lord’s day because it is the day Jesus rose from the dead
- The third commandment tells us to keep holy the Lord’s Day
- We should honor holy people, places, and things
- We should not use the name of the Lord in vain
- All people are called to holiness
- When we honor God, we imitate Mary and the saints
- It is never okay to curse, even when we are angry
- Catholics must celebrate Mass on Sundays and Holy Days
- Swearing in court is allowed
- Catholics typically should not work on Sunday since it is a day of rest
The Human Body Notes:
I. The Skeletal System:
- The Skeletal System:
a) Provides shape and form - without bones, we would be a pile of skin and guts!
b) Supports and protects organs
c) Produces blood cells (bone marrow’s job)
d) Stores minerals (ex: calcium. We drink milk to keep bones strong)
- Is made of bone and cartilage
- Bones: are made of salt, water, and tissue. (p. 145)
- There are 206 bones in an adult human body!
- There are 300 bones is a baby’s body!
- The Spine: The central support system for the body
- Cartilage: keeps bones from rubbing together
- Bones that make up the skeletal system:
- Hands, feet, arms, legs, and hips
II. The Muscular System
- The Muscular System: Is made of muscles that move your body. Your need muscles to smile, eat, play, and move. It is made of two different types of muscles.
- Voluntary Muscles: Muscles you can control
- Involuntary Muscles: Muscles you cannot control
III. The Digestive System p. 152
- The job of the Digestive System is to provide the body with nutrients.
- Nutrients: Are substances that the body uses for energy and growth.
- There are 5 main organs in the digestive system.
- The Mouth: The teeth tear, cut, and grind food. Saliva is added to the food to help break down the food and help swallow it.
- The Esophagus: The muscles in the esophagus contract and relax to push swallowed food towards the stomach.
- The Stomach: The stomach is a bag like organ with muscular walls. The stomach muscles squeeze and mix food with digestive juice made in the stomach’s lining. The juice changes the food, which stays in the stomach for 2-4 hours. When the food leaves the stomach it is a thick liquid.
- The Small Intestines: Most digestion takes place here. The juices in the small intestine change the food into nutrients. These nutrients pass through the thin wall of a blood vessel in the intestinal lining. Blood carries the nutrients to body cells.
- The Large Intestines: The parts of food that cannot be digested are sent to the large intestine. It removes much of the liquid and stores the solid waste until it leaves the body in 10-24 hours.
IV. The Circulatory System p. 148
- The job of the Circulatory System is to transport nutrients, oxygen, and water to the body’s cells.
- There are 3 major organs in the Circulatory System.
- The Blood: There are 4 major parts of blood.
- Plasma: is the watery part of the blood. Nutrients, wastes, and blood cells float in the plasma.
- Red Blood Cells: give blood its color and carry oxygen to the body’s cells.
- White Blood Cells: Protect you from sickness and help destroy germs.
- Platelets: are tiny parts of cells that help you stop bleeding.
- The Blood Vessels: There are 3 major parts of the Blood Vessels.
- Arteries: are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
- Capillaries: are tiny blood vessels with thin walls. They receive blood from the smallest arteries. Oxygen, nutrients, and wastes pass through the thin walls of the capillaries.
- Vein: is a blood vessel that carries blood from the capillaries back to the heart.
- The Heart: The heart is a 4 chambered, hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood every minute of every day.
- Atriums: 2 of the chambers are called the Atriums. They receive blood from the veins.
- Ventricles: The other 2 chambers are called Ventricles. They pump blood out of the heart through the arteries.
V. The Nervous System P. 154
- The job of the Nervous System is to send and receive messages for the body and to control the activities of the body.
- There are 4 main parts of the Nervous System:
- The Brain:
- The control center of the Nervous System
- The center for reason and logic
- Stores memories
- Is protected by the skull
- The Sense Organs:
- Body parts that have special nerve cells that gather information about the surroundings.
- The sense organs are: eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin
(Think the 5 senses)
- The Nerve Cell:
- A cell that gathers and carries information in the body.
- Nerve cells, called Neurons, have a special shape which contains tiny branches called Nerve Endings.
- The Spinal Cord:
- The Spinal Cord is a bundle of nerves that connects your brain with nerves throughout your body.
- The Spinal Cord is protected by your backbone.