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Science 'wind' unit

LESSON 1 – Feeling and describing wind(Engage)Ø      Purpose

To introduce the concept of air and wind on a sensory level and to stimulate thought to establish prior knowledge.

 Ø      Outcomes
ES ES1.6 – ·         Generates ideas and symbols to be used on a class chart.PP ES1.4 –·         Students talk about wind as a force making objects, such as scarves and ribbons, move.·         INV ES1.7 – ·         Makes observations using senses.·         Suggests simple cause and effect associations
 Ø      Links with other KLAs

English – Talking and Listening: TES1.1 – communicates with peers and known adults in informal situations and structured activities dealing briefly with familiar topics.

 English – word types (adjectives, synonyms): WES1. 14 – Recognises overall text structure and basic grammatical features of simple texts and some conventions of written language. Creative Arts – Drama: DRAES1.3 - Dramatises personal experiences using movement, space and objects. 

Mathematics – Sequencing (wind line): MES1.5 – sequences events; names and orders events.

 
 Ø      Resources

-      Ribbons/scarves (enough for one per person)

-      Science journals

-      Wind line: string, pegs, pre-made descriptions of wind types

 Ø      Safety provisions

-      Wind line should be in a position where no one can accidentally run into it.

-      If allowing students to run (if it’s not a windy day), ensure a clear area as well as sufficient supervision.

 Ø      Classroom organization

Classroom should be set up so that students are in table groups, but also so that there is room on the floor for them to have a class discussion. For this lesson the teacher should have the string for the wind line already in position both for ease of transition in the lesson and also to stimulate interest.

 Ø      Lesson sequence
Learning Experiences Justification: Development of children’s understanding of the concept; Development of children’s scientific literacy.Justification: Development of children’s skills in the process  Investigating Scientifically

·         Class discussion using focus questions “what is wind?”; “how can you tell when there is wind?” Take students outside to feel the wind. Use ribbons or scarves to demonstrate the effects of wind (nb: if there’s no wind ask students to run with the scarves, but ensure understanding of why wind is created when a person runs).

·         Develop a list of adjectives describing the wind throughout a discussion. Ask for the students’ observation of the scarves and for them to record it in their science journals.

·         Have students stand in their own space and pretend to be trees rooted to the ground but swaying in the wind. Students respond appropriately to the adjectives and actions spoken by the teacher.

·         Talk about how they were moving and what they imagined the wind was doing to them (as trees). Stimulate questions such as “how does the wind act upon objects?” and “what is the wind?” and encourage a link to air.

·         Making a class wind line: Develop a “wind line” describing types of wind by asking the students to peg into place pre-made descriptions of wind types in order from least wind to greatest wind on the line. Words should include all those that correspond with the Beaufort scale (see following worksheet).  Students are not expected to know these terms, rather you should encourage them to think of synonyms and adjectives describing these terms. This will develop a greater understanding of meaning and provide scaffolding for the students’ eventual use of these terms. NB: use this wind line to observe the wind outside everyday throughout the unit to encourage constant communication about the wind and to set the scene for future lessons.

·         Establish students’ prior knowledge and understandings of the concept of wind.

     

·         Word bank -adjectives

 

·         Science journal

 

·         Students may refer and add to this list throughout the lesson and unit to increase vocabulary and understanding.

  

·         Using drama and movement will help stimulate ideas surrounding the concept of wind and encourage any questions students may have about the effects of wind.

 

·         This will encourage students to talk about the wind as a force acting on objects (such as trees and scarves).

   

·         This will develop appropriate language and give students a shared knowledge of vocabulary to communicate wind conditions. This will introduce the idea of wind speed and direction in a non-threatening manner.

   

·         Observing and recording.

         

·         Analyzing and processing.

              

·         Developing a researchable question.

 LESSON 2 – What is air? What is wind? Creating wind.(Explore)  

Ø      Purpose

Introducing air as a substance and linking air and wind through the use of discrepant events. It should be noted here that students must develop an acceptance of air as a substance with properties in order to give meaning to future lessons and learning experiences.

 Ø      Outcomes

INV ES1.7 –

·         Suggests simple cause and effect associations.·         Makes observations using senses.·         Tells others about what has been found out. 
 Ø      Links with other KLAs

English – Talking and Listening: TES1.1 – communicates with peers and known adults in informal situations and structured activities dealing briefly with familiar topics.

 English – Reading (Text type: procedures): RES1.7 – demonstrates an emerging awareness that visual and written texts convey meaning and recognizes that there are different kinds of texts that serve different purposes.
 Ø      Resources

-      Instruction sheet for the teacher

-      Larger instructions to accompany each of the stations

-      Laminated instruction sheets.

-      Balloons.

-      Garbage bags of various sizes.

-      Hanging rod (measuring mass of air).

-      Plastic drink bottles (empty and no lids).

-      Bucket large enough to submerge the bottles it water.

 

Optional:

-      Digital camera to help record the students’ progress.

 Ø      Safety provisions

-      This lesson should be undertaken with parent helpers available to help run each of the stations.

-      Stations should be away from one another to avoid cluttering and potential injuries.

 Ø      Classroom organization

-      To be arranged prior to students entering the classroom

-      Stations should be arranged so that there are clearly marked boundaries for each and so that no one will be running into each other. If outside is available some stations can be placed there, but only if suitable adult supervision and parent help is available.

 Ø      Lesson sequence

Learning Experiences:

Justification: Development of children’s understanding of the concept; Development of children’s scientific literacy.Justification: Development of children’s skills in the process  Investigating Scientifically

·         Introduce air as a substance. Ask students “Does air exist?” and “How do we know it exists?” Establish what conceptions the students have collectively, encouraging them to think about such things as breathing, the movement of air when a fan is on, and the movement of air when they were running with the scarves in the previous lesson.

·         NB: for activities to be included see below.

·         Point out the activities set up around the room (already arranged by the teacher prior to the lesson) and explain instructions for each.  It would also be a good idea for instructions to be left at each station for students to refer to.

·         Ask students to form into small groups of 2-3 people and instruct that they should visit every station throughout the lesson, but it doesn’t matter in what order they do them. Students are to talk to each other about what they are doing and what they find out about air at each station and write notes on the laminated sheets provided with the questions: what happened? Why did it happen? And what will happen if…? (any way to change the experiment?).

·         Bring the students together by asking “what have we learned about air?”

·         This continues the theme of wind and links it to air, answering the questions posed about wind being made up of air in the previous lesson.

          

·         These activities show students that the concepts of air and wind are apparent in everyday life and will help students to link their ideas and investigate the properties of wind.

·         Developing a researchable question.

·         Planning an investigation.

         

·         Implementing an investigation.

·         Observing and recording.

·         Analyzing data.

          

·         Drawing conclusions.

 LESSON 3 – Wind in our atmosphere.(Explain) Ø      Purpose

Introducing hot and cold air and how the temperature of the air produces wind. This involves a scaffolded inquiry process resulting in posters created by small groups. This lesson will help to establish understandings and misunderstandings in the unit so far.

 Ø      Outcomes

ES ES1.6 –

·         Why wind occurs.PP ES1.4 – ·         When an objects moves, energy is used.INV ES1.7 –·            Suggests simple cause and effect associations. ·            Tells others about what has been found out.
 Ø      Links with other KLAs

English – Reading (Text type: factual information and explanation): RES1.7 – demonstrates an emerging awareness that visual and written texts convey meaning and recognizes that there are different kinds of texts that serve different purposes.

 

English - Talking and Listening (public speaking): TES1.2 – demonstrates basic skills of classroom and group interaction, makes brief oral presentations and listens with reasonable attentiveness.

 Ø      Resources

-      Portable electric heater: one WITHOUT a fan!

-      Ribbon

-      Research tools, including library time, internet, posters and other books that you might have.

 Ø      Safety provisions

- Both of the experiments in this class are by demonstration only. Students must not have access to the equipment or get too close when the experiments are underway.

 Ø      Classroom organization

-      Teacher should be up the front so that everyone can see.

-      Students should sit at their desks to avoid having people creep closer and closer.

-      Once the first experiment is packed away the lesson should be moved to where it is convenient for research to take place, e.g. the library or computer room. If this is not possible, adequate and appropriate research tools should be provided in the classroom.

 Ø      Lesson sequence

Learning Experiences:

Justification: Development of children’s understanding of the concept; Development of children’s scientific literacy.Justification: Development of children’s skills in the process  Investigating Scientifically

·         Introduce the students to the concept of hot air rising and cool air sinking by using a heater to heat the air and create an updraft to move some ribbons placed above the heater. NB: this MUST be demonstrated by the teacher – students must not get too close! Discuss the students’ ideas about why the ribbons are moving but do not confirm any answers.

·         Students spend the lesson researching in small groups about winds in our atmosphere, answering the following questions: what does high and low pressure mean? How can you explain this? And finally, why did the ribbon move when it was held above the heater?

·         Groups are to present there work in a poster to the class. Whole class discussion should finalise all students’ findings and any lingering questions about air in our atmosphere.

NB: this may need a few research lessons for the groups to complete their work.

·         As an activity to finish the lesson and reconfirm what the students have learnt, demonstrate hot air rising by lighting tea bags set at different heights. Ask students to help you explain what has happened.

·         This will make the students realize that air and wind is a part of our everyday lives. By helping the students to form initial thoughts about hot and cold air the students will be provided with a starting point for their research.

           

·        Explanation

           

·         Developing a researchable question.

·         Implementing an investigation.

·         Drawing conclusions.

 LESSON 4 – How do people use the wind? Ø      Purpose

To develop the idea that wind is a renewable resource and that we use wind in our everyday lives.

 Ø      Outcomes

ES ES1.6 –

·         Understands that humans and other animals organise activities to suit the characteristics of the seasons, including wind.·         Recognizes that choice of clothing and shelter will vary depending upon characteristics of the seasons, including wind.PP ES1.4 –·         When an objects moves, energy is used.INV ES1.7 – Investigates their surroundings by observing, questioning, exploring and reporting.·         Suggests simple cause and effect associations, e.g. when the wind blows my windmill turns.·         Explains own ideas about reasons for patterns, e.g. the wind was faster in certain areas because…DM ES1.8 – ·         States the purpose or use of a common product. ·         Tells how people use this product.·         Uses common materials and equipment to make a scaled model of a windmill.UT ES1.9 – ·         Follow established procedures with equipment and materials to produce the desired results, e.g. in making a windmill to explore and investigate the wind.·         Follows procedures to ensure the safety of self and others when using equipment and materials.
 Ø      Links with other KLAs

English – Word types (adjectives): WES1. 14 – Recognises overall text structure and basic grammatical features of simple texts and some conventions of written language.

 Ø      Resources

-      Windmill instruction and worksheet

-      Windmill resources, including: coloured card/paper (arranged as suggested by the instructions); a piece of thin dowel 30cm long with a hole drilled into the top; a bead; a large headed nail and a small button; glue; hammer (teachers use only).

-      Suggested images.

-      Results recording sheet.

 Ø      Safety provisions

-     This lesson requires parent helpers or assistance from cooperating adults in order to run as smoothly and as safely as possible.

-     Resources for the windmill construction must be handled by the teacher or parent helpers and carefully monitored. Construction itself should be highly scaffolded.

-     When students go outside they must be accompanied by one of the cooperating adults. Students should go outside in groups of 4 or 5, depending on the number of adults available, both for safety reasons and also to encourage students to help one another.

 Ø      Classroom organization

-     Students may remain in their normal desk groups for this activity, however there must be an adult supervising and helping.

-     Equipment should be arranged on the desks prior to the lesson, but ensure that students move straight to the floor for the introduction.

 Ø      Lesson sequence

Learning Experiences:

Justification: Development of children’s understanding of the concept; Development of children’s scientific literacy.Justification: Development of children’s skills in the process  Investigating Scientifically

·         Begin the lesson with a discussion stimulated by artwork and images portraying windy days (for suggested images see below). Ask the students to point out how they can tell the scenes in the images are windy. Ask which direction they think the wind is travelling and refer to the “wind line” for students to suggest the strength of the wind in the images. Suggested images of parachutes, wind chimes, wind socks, windmills and a wind speed instrument are available under the resource section for this lesson (4).

·         Pose the question – “how do we use the wind?” and discuss what the students know, referring to the images to aid the discussion (e.g., what are windmills used for?). Suggestions should be based on images students’ ideas, but focus on windmills and energy by having some extra images of windmills to help lead the discussion.

·         Explain that the students will be constructing their own windmills using the equipment already prepared by the teacher. (See windmill instructions worksheet below).

·         Complete the activity by allowing students to move outside the classroom and testing their windmills in the wind. Pose the questions for the students to answer: “are some areas of the playground windier than others? Describe the areas you tested your windmill. Why do you think the wind was faster/slower in particular areas?” etc. Compare answers with the rest of the class.

·         Have students fill in the results sheet provided (see below windmill instructions worksheet) to identify the connections between the wind and the movement of the windmill.

·         Images are useful tools in stimulating discussion and will get students thinking of everyday occurrences where the wind is used, e.g. in drying the laundry, in generating power, in telling wind direction and speed etc.

 

·         Referring back to a previous lesson will encourage the transfer of the students’ learning.

            

·         The construction of a model windmill will help the students to develop an understanding of the concept through the application of the knowledge they have gained over the last three lessons.

·         Allowing students to test their models and experiment with the wind will help to enhance their understanding of the concept as well as taking a scientific approach to their learning.

    

·         This teaches students to always draw conclusions and record their results.

                          

·         Implementing an investigation.

      

·         Observing and recording.

·         Analyzing and comparing data.

·         Drawing conclusions.

 LESSON 5 – Measuring the wind.(Elaborate)  Ø      Purpose

For students to work as a class to develop an instrument for measuring wind speed. This provides an opportunity for students to work scientifically, testing their products etc.

 Ø      Outcomes

ES ES1.6 –

·         Observes and recounts changes in the environment over a day and describes activities at different times of the day.·         Generates ideas and symbols to be used on a wind speed instrument.PP ES1.4 – ·         When an objects moves, energy is used.DM ES1.8 –·         States the purpose or use of a common product. ·         Tells how people use this product.·         Uses common materials and equipment to make a scaled model of a windmill.UT ES1.9 –·         Follow established procedures with equipment and materials to produce the desired results.
 Ø      Links with other KLAs

English – Talking and Listening: TES1.1 – communicates with peers and known adults in informal situations and structured activities dealing briefly with familiar topics.

 

Mathematics – (angles): Space and Geometry: SGS1.2 – comparing angles. SGS3.2a – using a protractor to discover angles. NB: the use of protractors does not enter the mathematics syllabus explicitly until stage 2 and 3, and the use and understanding of angles does not enter until stage 1. This lesson introduces the concept, but do not expect students to have a full understanding or to use the associated language.

 Ø      Resources

-     Strong thread approx 40cm long

-     Ping-pong ball

-     Large protractor

-     Glue

-     Sticky tape

-     Thick cardboard (for mounting protractor).

 Ø      Safety provisions

- The resources and activity in this lesson do not present any major safety issues, however, ensure that students know what they are doing by presenting and brainstorming as a whole class before making in small groups.

 Ø      Classroom organization

-Normal desk groups set up for group work, but for the whole class discussion students should be sitting on the floor.

- Materials should not be handed out until the design has been made by the students.

 Ø      Lesson sequence

Learning Experiences:

Justification: Development of children’s understanding of the concept; Development of children’s scientific literacy.Justification: Development of children’s skills in the process  Investigating Scientifically
·         Remind students of their experiences with their windmills. What did they notice when: they ran with them? The windmill was placed at higher ground? Was the wind the same in every area they went? Refer back to the wind line to see what strengths of wind the students have experienced. Who do they think measures wind speed for us (bureau of meteorology) and focus questionhow could we measure wind speed?

·         Provide students with a range of materials from which the class is to decide on the construction of an instrument to measure wind speed. Ensure that the teacher demonstrates the potential use of each resource to help scaffold the activity. Test the product of the brainstorming by blowing on it (creating wind) before allowing students to replicate it. If the instrument doesn’t work, ask students to identify what might be wrong and what they could change. NB: for a view of what your instrument may look like see below.

·         Once a plan is put into place as a whole class, the students should work in groups to replicate the instrument and place them outside exposed to wind. Comment/question: ‘what makes the ping pong ball and string move?’ (to associate forces with wind)

·         Students should observe their instrument over the next few days and discuss their observations.

·         Referring to previous resources will aid in the transfer of learning throughout the unit and will also be less threatening to students as they are using familiar tools to help learn new concepts.

       

·         Allowing the students to brainstorm ideas and come up with strategies to create useful tools aids in their skills at problem solving.

                

·         Planning an investigation.

·         Implementing an investigation.

           

·         Observing

 LESSON 6 – Reporting back.(Evaluate)  Ø      Purpose

For students to evaluate and present their findings from throughout the unit. To give students ownership over the activities and experiences they have accomplished.

 Ø      Outcomes

ES ES1.6 –

·         Observes and recounts changes in the environment over a dayPP ES1.4 – ·         When an objects moves, energy is used.INV ES1.7 – ·         Tells others about what has been found out.DM ES1.8 –·         States the purpose or use of a common product. ·         Tells how people use this product.
 Ø      Links with other KLAs

English - Talking and Listening (public speaking): TES1.2 – demonstrates basic skills of classroom and group interaction, makes brief oral presentations and listens with reasonable attentiveness.

 

Mathematics – (angles): Space and Geometry: SGS1.2 – comparing angles. SGS3.2a – using a protractor to discover angles. NB: the use of protractors does not enter the mathematics syllabus explicitly until stage 2 and 3, and the use and understanding of angles does not enter until stage 1. This lesson introduces the concept, but do not expect students to have a full understanding or to use the associated language.

 Ø      Resources

-     Any item that students wish to present to others.

-     Science journals.

 Ø      Safety provisions

- None necessary. Students should be careful when they handle their work and the work of others.

 Ø      Classroom organization

Students should be seated at their desks throughout discussion of the previous lesson, as well as while deciding what they would like to present in the assembly.

Once decisions are made the teacher should direct students in practice runs of how they will be presenting their works.

 Ø      Lesson sequence

Learning Experiences:

Justification: Development of children’s understanding of the concept; Development of children’s scientific literacy.Justification: Development of children’s skills in the process  Investigating Scientifically

·         Students have been taking readings from their wind speed instruments and recording them in their science journals. This lesson the class is to collate their finding s and draw conclusions about their environment in regards to wind speed.

·         The class is to present their findings about wind in their school at assembly.

·         Evaluating and presenting findings are part of working scientifically.

·         Observing and recording.

·         Analyzing data.

·         Drawing conclusions.


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