Unit 5 Notes Water

UNIT 4 WATER NOTES

MOST IMPORTANT NATURAL RESOURCE

Water is our most important natural resource and it’s protected by the EPA Environmental Protection Agency. This agency ensures that our water stays as safe and clean as possible for humans and animals.

 

The EPA does water quality testing and other types of monitoring. When they test water quality, they look at

  • Oxygen Levels– how much O2 is dissolved in the water
  • pH– if it’s at a good level for the life that live in it and around it
  • Turbidity - is cloudiness or haziness of water caused by large numbers of individual particles in the water
  • Temperature_ – is it in a healthy range

PROPERTIES OF WATER

Water molecules are strongly attracted and pull towards each other. This attraction between molecules is called Cohension.


SURFACE TENSION

  • Water molecules are attracted to each other in every direction (One side of molecule is positive one side is negative).
  • The surface water molecules are attracted downward by the water molecules below them. The strong attraction below causes the water to have something like a strong invisible “skin” at the top surface. The scientific name given to this “skin” is surface tension.       Example: water sticking to a leaf

WATER THE UNIVERSAL SOLVENT

  • Water dissolves a a variety of substances, which is why it is such a good solvent.
  • It dissolves more substances than any other liquid.

WATER ON EARTH

_______% salt water,          ______% fresh water           Most fresh water is at ___

HOW WATER CAN CHANGE THE LAND

Weathering – is the process that breaks down into smaller pieces called sediments_. Sediments are small pieces of loose materials.

 


 Types of weathering: mechanical/physical_ - process of rocks breaking apart without changing their
chemical composition.

Example:_frost wedging_

 

chemical weathering_– process of rocks breaking apart and their chemistry is changed


            Example: caves

Erosion - is the movement of weathered material to new locations, where they are then deposited. This is called deposition_.

 

WATERSHED

An area of land that is drained by streams and rivers are called watershed .

 

Parts of a watershed

  • River is natural flowing, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river, weathering and erosion causes rivers to get deeper and wider over time.
  • Divide is the elevated boundary separating areas that are drained by different river systems.
  • Great Continental Divide is in the Rocky Mountains, water on east side goes to Atlantic Ocean, and water on west goes Pacific Ocean.
  • Tributaries - small branches of water that feed rivers
  • Lake  is an area of filled with water, surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.

You must know how to label these features on the watershed.

GROUND WATER

Groundwater -water that has soaked into the ground collecting in pore spaces.

permeable – water can pass through (normally soil layer)

AREAS OF WATER

Wetland - area of land that is soaked with water for at least part of the year. This includes includes bogs, marshes, and swamps.

 

Function of a Wetland

  • Regulates _______________________________
  • Reduces _________________________________
  • Provides _______________________ for animals
  • Provides _______________________for animals
  • Provides resting place for __________________
  • Stores _____________________waters
  • Maintains water _________________________

Estuary – partially enclosed area where fresh water from the river mixes with salt water from the ocean. The _____________________________ is the largest estuary in the United State.

VIRGINIA

Important Facts

  • In VA most of our water drains to the Chesapeake Bay
  • Culpeper Virginia falls in the Rappahannock River watershed
  •  The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States.

The major rivers that flow into the Chesapeake Bay are: Chesapeake Bay are the Potomac, Rappahannock, York and James  You must know how to label these rivers on test.