Class Information

Class Notes – As of January 20, 2011 Era of European Exploration I.  Why did Europeans explore?A.  Marco Polo’s travels to ChinaB.  Demand for goods from AsiaC.  Competition with other countries for trade ($) II.  Columbus “discovers” AmericaA.  Columbus was inspired by Marco PoloB.  Spain was in competition with Portugal, which discover the route to Asia (they sailed around the coast of Africa to India)C.  Portugal began the African slave trade in 1400’sD.  Columbus was looking for a faster route to IndiaE.  Columbus represented Spain (King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella)F. “In 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue.”G.  Three ships – The Nina, Pinta and Santa MariaH.  Columbus called the people he found “Indians”I.   Columbus’ voyages led to the Spanish Empire Reasons for European Exploration~ Spain ~ PoliticalPortugal had already become a major force in the sea tradeEconomicAny land found could make Spain very wealthy; avoid Arab merchants’ high pricesSocialAfter expelling the Muslims from their own country, Spain wanted to spread Christianity III.  The English and French come to AmericaA.  England, France and other country ignore Spain and Portugal’s treatyB.  They were still looking for a route to Asia through America; the Northwest PassageC.  Both started colonies in America after failing to find a way through Reasons for European Exploration~ England and France ~ PoliticalEngland and France ignored Spain and Portugal’s claim to the New WorldEconomicA new route to Asia would allow them to compete with Portugal in goods from AsiaGeographicEnglish and French explorers believed there was a route through North America to Asia (The Northwest Passage)SocialEngland and France were both willing to start colonies in America  Timeline Items for the Era of European Exploration Magna Carta (1215)First document written by the people to limit a King’s power (King John of England); protected the rights of the people        Stated that the king may not levy or collect any taxes without the consent of his royal council         Inspired the colonists to later draft the U.S. Constitution English Parliament (1265)The legislature (government) in England; began as the King’s royal council established by the Magna Carta         Formed the basis for our U.S. Congress Christopher Columbus (1492)An Italian explorer who was supported by Spain.         He sailed West from Spain seeking a shorter route to India.         He and his crew of about 90 sailors came on  three ships – the Nina, the Pinta and the Santa Maria – and landed in the Caribbean. Era of Colonial Settlement I.  American Colonization beginsA.  Settlers arrive in Jamestown in 1607B.  English investors backed the Jamestown Colony

C.  18 other colonies had failed before Jamestown

D.  John Rolfe brought tobacco to the colony and helped to save it; he became wealthyE.  The Virginia House of Burgesses – the first elected assembly in America – meets for the first time in 1619 in Jamestown. Ten towns in the colony sent two representatives eachF.  Burgess – an elected official of city or townG. The first Africans arrived in America in 1619, but were not slaves – they were “indentured servants” would come to own their own land Colonial RegionsNew England ColoniesNew Hampshire, Connecticut, Massachusetts and Rhode IslandMiddle ColoniesDelaware, Pennsylvania, New York and New JerseySouthern ColoniesMaryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia  New England ColoniesThe people who settled here wanted to keep their family unit together and practice their own religion. They were used to doing many things themselves and not depending on other people for much. Some people came to make money, but they were not the majority.Middle ColoniesThe people who lived here were looking to practice their own religion (Pennsylvania mainly) or to make money. Many of these people didn't bring their families with them from England and were the perfect workers for the hard work required in ironworks and shipyards.  Southern ColoniesThe founders of these colonies were, for the most part, out to make money. They brought their families, as did the New England colonists, and they kept their families together on the plantations. But their main motivation was to make the good money that was available in the new American market.  II. New England ColoniesA. Puritans were people who wanted to reform the English church; Separatists wanted to leave and start their own churchB.  Pilgrims (or Separatists) set up the colonies; came over on the Mayflower and settled at Plymouth. They got help from the Native Americans to survive the first winterC.  15,000 Puritans leave England and settle in the Massachusetts colony near BostonD. Some settlers were dissatisfied with Puritan policies in Massachusetts and left to form their own colony, Connecticut. They wrote the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut to help them run the colony. This was the first written constitution.E. Settlers came into conflict with Native Americans over land, which sometimes settlers moved into without payment III. Middle ColoniesA. Dutch settlers set up the New Amsterdam colony on Manhattan Island; becomes New York after the English take over the colony in 1664.B.  William Penn founds a colony for his religious group, the Quakers.  He calls it Pennsylvania.C.  The Duke of York gave the southern part of his colony to Lord Berkley and Sir Carteret; it becomes New Jersey. IV. Southern ColoniesA. The economy in the south was based on agriculture and supported by the plantation system, which required many workers to function. B. The need for these workers would be the basis for slavery, especially in places like South Carolina’s rice fields and Virginia’s tobacco fields.C. Georgia was the last British colony to be settled and was actually meant to be a place were poor people from England could get a fresh start. Colonial Regional Economies

New England ColoniesThey were largely farming and fishing communities. The people made their own clothes and shoes. They grew much of their own food. Crops like corn and wheat grew in large numbers, and much was shipped to England. Foods that didn't grow in America were shipped from England. Boston was the major New England port.

 Middle ColoniesThey were part agriculture, part industrial. Wheat and other grains grew on farms in Pennsylvania and New York. Factories in Maryland produced iron, and factories in Pennsylvania produced paper and textiles. Trade with England was plentiful in these colonies as well.  Southern ColoniesThey were almost entirely agricultural (farming). The main feature was the plantation, a large plot of land that contained a great many acres of farmland and buildings for the people who owned the land and the people who worked it. (A large part of the workforce was African slaves, who first arrived in 1619.) Southern plantations grew tobacco, rice, and indigo, which they sold to buyers in England and elsewhere in America. V.  The Great Awakening (1720’s-1740s)

A. Started by ministers Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield

B. Stressed the importance of education and the belief that all people are equal before God. This will later become part of the Declaration of Independence

C. The Great Awakening was first felt in the Middle Colonies before spreading to all of them

 VI. Iroquois ConfederacyA. A powerful group of Native American tribes based in New York

B. Composed of the Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga and Oneida tribes

C. Sided with the British during the French and Indian War

D. Most other Native American tribes sided with the French because they already had an alliance. The French were more interested in the fur trade and did not wish to take over Native American lands.

 VII. Albany Plan of Union

A. A plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in June 1754 at Albany, New York

B. The plan called for a general government for 11 of the American colonies

C. Colonists met at Albany originally to find a way to protect themselves from the French

D. None of the colonies approved the plan; none were willing to give up their power

E. This was first attempt to form a central government in the colonies

 VIII. French and Indian War (1754-1763)A. Fought between the British and French; began as a dispute over the Ohio River Valley and grew into a war overseas (The Seven Years War)B. Colonists called it the French and Indian War because they fought against the French and their Native American alliesC. The British won the war and the Treaty of Paris (1763) gave them France’s territory, which extended to the Mississippi River. They also got Florida from the SpanishD. To avoid fighting another war with the Native Americans, the English announced the Proclamation of 1763, which prevented colonists from moving past the Appalachian Mountains and protected Native American lands.E. Colonists were upset because they thought they would get the land as a reward for fighting alongside the British Timeline Items for the Era of Colonial Settlement       Jamestown Settlement (1607)First successful English colony in New World         There were at least 18 other attempts to establish a colony before Jamestown (all failed)         Investors or entrepreneurs from England  invested money in Jamestown; the Virginia Company of London gave them a charter        John Rolfe brings tobacco to the Jamestown colony and becomes wealthy Virginia House of Burgesses (1619) First elected assembly in the American colonies.         Famous delegates included Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, and George                Washington. The House met for the first time at Jamestown on July 30, 1619 First Africans Arrive (1619)When they arrive in Virginia, they’re treated as “indentured servants” rather than slaves. This means they could earn their freedom. Some later became land owners and slave owners. Mayflower Compact (1620)The Pilgrims intended to go to the Virginia Colony (Jamestown), but landed much further north just as winter was beginning.        Before they left their ship (The Mayflower) they drew up the Mayflower Compact which pledged their loyalty to England and their promise to follow all the colony’s laws.        An important step in the development of representative government in America Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639)First written constitution in the Americas; developed by minister Thomas Hooker and his followers to govern their new colony.        Hooker and his followers grew unsatisfied with life in the Massachusetts colony. English Bill of Rights (1689)Listed certain basic rights of the people of England. They were inspired by John Locke and led to our own Bill of Rights (first 10 amendments of the U.S. Constitution). Albany Plan of Union – (1754)Adopted by Ben Franklin, the plan called for “one general government” for 11 of the colonies. This was the first attempt to establish a central government. None of the colonies approved it. French and Indian War – (1754)Part of the Seven Year’s War fought in Europe between England and France. Americans fought against French and Native American forces. George Washington gets his first command. Lasted from 1754-1763. Treaty of Paris – (1763)Ends the French and Indian War; forces France to give up Canada and most of its land east of the Mississippi River to England. This marks the end of France as a power in North America.  Spain gives up Florida to the English, but gets the land west of the Mississippi from France. Proclamation of 1763 – (1763)Even though the Treaty of Paris gave the British additional land, the colonists weren’t allowed to move into it. The border for the colonists was the Appalachian Mountains.  England chose to protect Native American lands by keeping the colonists out of them. England had just fought a war with the Native Americans because they had refused to pay them for their land. Revolutionary War Era British Economic Policies         Sugar Act (1764) – Lowered the tax on molasses imported by colonists. They hoped the colonists would pay the tax instead of smuggling.        Stamp Act (1765) – Placed a tax on almost all printed material in the colonies. It was later repealed (cancelled).        Declaratory Act (1766) – Stated that Parliament had the right to tax and make decisions for the colonies.

        Townshend Acts (1767) – Placed a tax on all imported goods (glass, tea, paper and lead).

        Tea Act (1774) – Gave the British East India Company the right to ship tea to the colonies without paying most of the usual taxes. Parliament did this to save the company. Colonists responded by boycotting the tea. Colonists’ Reaction to the Tea ActBoston Tea Party (1773) – The Sons of Liberty, dressed as Mohawk Indians, dump 342 chests of tea from three ships into Boston Harbor. The value of the tea in 1773 was $30,000. Today it would be worth $1.8 million.          Sons of Liberty (1765) – Led by Samuel Adams and founded in Boston, it began as a group of citizens who resisted the Stamp Act. Eventually, there was a chapter in every colony. At first, they were still loyal to England. Intolerable (Coercive)  Acts 1774        Boston Port Act  – Closed Boston’s harbor until the ruined tea was paid for and banned most town meetings.        Massachusetts Government Act – Almost all positions in the colonial government were to be appointed by the governor or the king         Quartering Act  Allowed for British troops to stay in the colonists’ homes (may be a myth)        Quebec Act -- Set up a permanent government for Quebec (Canada) and gave them territory west of the Appalachian Mountains where colonists could not go The Colonists felt that ANY tax was unfair because they had their own governments in each of the colonies. Even though they were British, they didn’t think British Parliament had a right to tax them. The Three Major Battles of the American Revolution BeginningThe Battle of Lexington and Concord (1775)Paul Revere and other Midnight Riders warn militias in Massachusetts that British troops are marching from Boston to Concord to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock. The colonial militia tries to slow down the British at Lexington and then defeat the British at Concord. The militias also kill 73 British troops who go back to Boston. The Battle of Bunker Hill (1775) – The colonial militia surrounds Boston to keep the British there after Lexington and Concord. The battle is actually fought on Breed’s Hill.  The British win the battle, but now know that defeating the Americans will be neither quick nor easy. MiddleThe Battle of Saratoga (1777)An American victory convinces the French to join the Revolution on the American’s side. EndThe Battle of Yorktown (1781) – Washington’s troops march from New York to Virginia and surprise the British. Trapped between Washington’s troops on land and the French navy at sea, the British surrender and end the war.  Important Documents Declaration of Independence (1776)July 4th, 1776 – Written by Thomas Jefferson, it announces the birth of the United States. Influenced by John Locke, who wrote that people were born with certain natural rights to life, liberty and property. Parts of the Declaration of Independence 
  1. Preamble – Explains why the Continental Congress drew up the Declaration
  2. Declaration of Natural Rights – Lists the rights of the citizens
  3. List of Grievances – Lists the colonists’ complaints against the English government.  There were 40 different complaints.
  4. Resolution of Independence – Declares the colonies were Free and Independent states
 Articles of Confederation (1777) The first U.S. Constitution. It provided for a central government, but still allowed the states to keep most of their “sovereignty, freedom and independence.”  In other words, the Articles allowed the states to have too much power.  This, among other things, would ensure it only lasted 10 years. It was replaced by the U.S. Constitution in 1787. Congress was designed to weak under the Articles of Confederation and had few powers: Congress could: 1.  Declare war2.  Make treaties3.  Manage Indian affairs4.  Maintain an army and navy5.  Coin and borrow money6.  Regulate weights and measures7.  Establish a postal service Congress could NOT:1. Regulate trade2. Raise Taxes Timeline Items for the Revolutionary War Era First Continental Congress (1774)55 delegates from every colony except Georgia arrive in Philadelphia, Pa. to establish a political body to represent American interests and challenge British control. Where the Albany Plan of Union failed, the Continental Congress succeeded. They agreed to boycott all British goods and organize militias. Battle of Lexington and Concord (1775)The first battle of the Revolutionary War. The shots fired at Lexington is referred to as the “shot heard ‘round the world.” British troops, who were on their way to Concord to seize Colonial weapons, were defeated there and attacked as they retreated. Second Continental Congress (1775)Delegates created the Continental Army and chose George Washington as commander-in-chief.  Also sent the Olive Branch petition to England, which would prevent an all-out war. King George III refused. They also decided to declare independence. Declaration of Independence (1776)July 4th, 1776 – Written by Thomas Jefferson, it announces the birth of the United States. Influenced by John Locke, who wrote that people were born with certain natural rights to life, liberty and property. The idea that “all people are created equal” came from the 1st Great Awakening. Articles of Confederation (1777)The first U.S. Constitution. It provided for a central government, but still allowed the states to keep most of their “sovereignty, freedom and independence.”  This, among other things, would ensure it only lasted 10 years.  Battle of Saratoga (1777)An important American victory that convinced the French to assist the colonists in the war against England. Valley Forge (1777) – Winter campsite of the Continental Army. On December 19, 1777, when Washington's poorly fed, ill-equipped army, weary from long marches, struggled into Valley Forge, winds blew as the 12,000 Continentals prepared for winter's fury.  Battle of Yorktown (1781) American and French forces defeat British forces in the last major land battle of the Revolutionary War.  Treaty of Paris (1783)The British recognized The United States as an independent nation and promised to withdraw all troops.  U.S. territory now extended from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the Mississippi River.  Important People Samuel AdamsLeader of the Sons of Liberty in Boston. Organized protests over the Stamp Act and used propaganda to his advantage. Attended the First and Second Continental Congresses Paul RevereA Boston silversmith and member of the Sons of Liberty.  He’s most famous for his “Midnight Ride” to warn local militias as well as Samuel Adams and John Hancock of British troop movement. Revere become famous because of the poem, “The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere” while another rider, William Dawes, does not become famous. Thomas PaineWrote a pamphlet called “Common Sense” that captured the attention of American colonists.  Paine called for complete independence from England. Thomas JeffersonWriter of the Declaration of Independence; will become our 3rd President and help acquire the Louisiana Purchase.  He was inspired by English philosopher John Locke. Marquis de LafayetteA French nobleman who traveled to American on his own and became a trusted aide to George Washington at Valley Forge.  The New Republic Era  Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress was designed to be weak and had few powers.Other Problems        British troops still occupied territory in the Great Lakes region         The Spanish still occupied Florida and later closed the lower Mississippi River to American shipping        The Articles of Confederation also had no provision for adding new states. Other reasons the Articles of Confederation needed to be change       1.  Economy – The nation was in debt and in a depression similar to one we’re in today
  • The British closed off the West Indies to trade and this hurt the country’s ability to sell their goods
  • The war damaged Southern plantations
  • Shay’s Rebellion – Led by Revolutionary War veteran Daniel Shays in 1786
 They forced courts in western Massachusetts to close so judges could not take their farms.  Shays and 1,000 others tried to take over a federal building before they were chased away by Army troops 2.  Slavery – Some northern states began to abolish slavery, but most southern states would not.        Pennsylvania was the first to form an anti-slavery society (1775). Other Northern states began to outlaw it as well         The economy of the south was built on slavery, so they would not agree to end it        This issue began to divide the country        A temporary compromise to the issue of slavery in 1787 was that the practice would continue until 1808 when Congress could limit the slave trade if it chose to. Roots of the U.S. Constitution        Magna Carta (1215) – Limited the powers of the king         English Bill of Rights (1689) – Provided a model for our own Bill of Rights         John Locke – Believed that all people had “natural rights,” (the ones in the Magna Carta and English Bill of Rights)In his book “Two Treatises on Government,” (1690) he wrote that government is based on an agreement, or contract, between the people and their ruler.           Baron de Montesquieu – declared that the powers of government should be separate and balanced against each other Three branches of government created by the U.S. Constitution (the first three articles): Article I – Legislative Branch          Establishes the Legislative, or lawmaking branch of government. Congress is composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate          Our government is composed this way thanks to the Great Compromise.         Powers include collecting taxes, coining money and regulating trade. Congress can also declare war and raise and support armies. Article II – Executive Branch          Establishes the Executive Branch, which is headed by the President.  It carries out the nation’s laws and policies.          The President serves as commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces (military) and conducts relations with other countries.         The President and Vice-President are elected by the Electoral College (each state has as many electors as they have senators and representatives).  Article III – Judicial Branch          Judicial power resides in “one supreme court” and any lower federal court Congress might establish          The Supreme Court and federal courts hear cases involving the Constitution, laws passed by Congress and disputes between the states. System of Checks and Balances          Ensures that no one branch (Executive, Judicial or Legislative) gains too much power.           The three branches have roles that check, or limit, the others so that no one single branch can dominate the government.          Example: Both the House and Senate must pass a bill before it becomes law; but the President can check the Congress by vetoing (rejecting) the bill.  Bill of Rights – 1791        The first 10 amendments of the U.S. Constitution. They protect the basic rights and liberties most of us take for granted. Written by James Madison, the idea for them comes from the English Bill of Rights (1689). First Amendment“The Five Freedoms”        Freedom of Speech – People have the right to speak freely without government interference.         Freedom of Press – The press (media) has the right to publish news, information and opinions without government interference.         Freedom of Religion – The government cannot establish a religion and each person has the right to practice (or not practice) any faith without government interference.         Freedom to Petition – People have the right to appeal to the government in favor of or against policies that affect them or that they feel strongly about.          Freedom of Assembly – People have the right to gather in public to march, protest, demonstrate, carry signs and otherwise express their views in a nonviolent way.   Bill of Rights1st AmendmentGuarantees freedom of speech, press, religion, petition and assembly2nd AmendmentThe right to bear arms; states can also maintain militias3rd AmendmentNo quartering of troops in private homes4th AmendmentNo unreasonable search and seizure5th AmendmentAssures rights of “life, liberty and property” without due process of law6th AmendmentAssures speedy and public trials by an impartial jury7th AmendmentAssures the right to jury trial 8th AmendmentProtects against excessive bail or cruel and unusual punishment9th AmendmentPeople’s right are not restricted to the first eight amendments10th AmendmentPowers not granted to the federal government, nor prohibited to the states, are reserved to the states or the people. The Seven Major Principles of the Constitution (FLIP RoCkS)        Federalism         Limited Government         Individual Rights        Popular Sovereignty        Republicanism        Checks and Balances         Separation of Powers Federalism         The power to govern is shared between the national government and the states.         In this system, the government has three types of powers:
  1. Enumerated Powers – powers that belong only to the federal government
  2. Reserved Powers – powers retained by the states
  3. Concurrent Powers – powers shared by the state ad federal government
 Limited Government        The “rule of law.” No people or groups are above the law. Government officials who help make the laws must still obey them Individual Rights         The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution in 1791. It consists of the first 10 amendments and protects liberties most of us take for granted. Popular Sovereignty        The authority of the people. The Declaration of Independence states that governments derive their power from the “consent of the governed.” Republicanism        Voters elect representatives and give them the responsibility to make laws and conduct government. The people are the source of the government’s power. Checks and Balances        Each branch of government has the ability to check or limit the power of other branches; no one branch is more dominant than another. Separation of Powers        The government is divided into three branches; Legislative, Judicial and Executive.  Timeline ItemsNorthwest Ordinance -- 1787        The plan was proposed by Thomas Jefferson         Created a single Northwest Territory of the lands north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River. The lands were to divided into three to five smaller territories (states).         When a territory reached a population of 60,000, it could apply for statehood.         Slavery and involuntary servitude were outlawed. Philadelphia Convention -- 1787         55 delegates from every state except Rhode Island met in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation.         George Washington was chosen to preside over the convention         No meetings could be held unless at least seven of the 13 states were represented. Virginia Plan -- 1787         Edmund Randolph suggested that instead of revising the Articles of Confederation, they should create a strong, national government.         The plan was largely the work of James Madison and called for a two-house legislature, a court system and a chief executive chosen by the legislature         Members of the lower house would be chosen by the people, while the upper house would be elected by lower house representatives         Delegates from Delaware and New Jersey rejected it. New Jersey Plan -- 1787         The plan called for the Articles of Confederation’s one-house legislature          It gave Congress the power to raise taxes and regulate trade          It called for a weak Executive Branch consisting of more than one person The Great Compromise -- 1787         Suggested by Roger Sherman of Connecticut          Sherman suggested a two-house legislature; in the House of Representatives (lower house) the number of seats would be determined by population while in the Senate, each state would have two members. The disagreement over the Virginia and New Jersey Plans revealed a developing spilt between the founders when it came to how the government would function.  There were two distinct factions: FederalistsLed by Alexander Hamilton, they supported a strong central government. They wanted a completely new Constitution. Anti-FederalistsLed by Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson, they supported states’ rights and did not want a strong central government. They wanted to only revise the Articles of Confederation.  Three-fifths Compromise -- 1787         Southern states wanted to count slaves in their states’ population so they would have more seats in the House of Representatives.          Northern states objected because slaves were not U.S. citizens          The compromise was to count each slave as 3/5 of a person.  In other words, every five slaves would count for three people for the purposes of representation and taxation. U.S. Constitution -- 1787          Was approved on September 17, 1787; the day the government of the United States came into existence          No state can make laws or take actions that go against the Constitution – the supreme law of the land          Divided the government into three branches – legislative, executive and judicial, as described in the first three Articles of the Constitution          The government officially began operations on March 4, 1789 Bill of Rights – 1791        The first 10 amendments of the U.S. Constitution. They protect the basic rights and liberties most of us take for granted. Written by James Madison, the idea for them comes from the English Bill of Rights (1689). First U.S. President – 1789·         George Washington  is elected as the  first U.S. President (the only president to receive 100% of electoral votes).  Because Washington was the first president, his actions would establish a precedent (tradition) for all presidents to follow.  Precedents established by Washington           First to be inaugurated – (inauguration – a formal ceremony to mark the beginning of a leader’s term of office)           Mr. President” – Washington’s vice president, John Q. Adams, wanted to call him “His Highness the President of the United States.”          Choosing his cabinet  -- A cabinet is a group of advisors that meet with the President. The President  appoints them, but needs the Senate’s approval to dismiss them.         First to serve two terms – No other president, other than Franklin D. Roosevelt, served more than two terms (Presidential term in office – 4 years)           Use of force to uphold the law – Whiskey  Rebellion           Neutrality in Foreign Affairs – Washington favored staying  out  of the affairs of other countries.  President Washington’s CabinetSec. of State – Thomas Jefferson (Anti-Federalist)          Handles relations with other countries Sec. of Treasury – Alexander Hamilton (Federalist)           Deals with the nation’s finances Sec. of War – Henry Knox           Provides for the nation’s defense (the office is called Sec. of Defense today) Attorney General – Edmund Randolph           Handles the government’s legal affairs The differences in belief between Jefferson (Anti-Federalists) and Hamilton (Federalists) would lead the first political parties. Washington did not believe in political parties, nor did he favor either Jefferson or Hamilton. He felt he need both for the nation’s best interests. Washington’s Farewell Address – 1796·         Washington warned against the evils of political parties and getting mixed up in foreign affairs.  His farewell address is still read in the Senate every year on his birthday. 1st Bank of the United States – 1792         Hamilton  (Federalist) wanted to create a national bank to help build the nation’s economy.  At the time, there were only 8 banks in the country (all were state banks).         Jefferson (Anti-Federalist) was against it because there was nothing in the Constitution about creating a bank.          Washington ended up agreeing with Hamilton. Election of 1796This was the first election in which candidates sought office as members of a party. Washington did believe in nor represent any political party. Therefore, this established a precedent. John Adams (Federalist Party), who was Washington’s Vice-President, ran against Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican Party).  Adams won the election (71-68), but at that time, the Constitution stated that the individual who had the second-most votes would be Vice-President.  Therefore, we had a Federalist President (Adams) and a Democratic-Republican Vice President (Jefferson). XYZ Affair -- 1798·         During Adams’ presidency, three French agents (later named) X, Y and Z demand a bribe and a loan for France. The French believed the U.S. was supporting England, who was at war with France. Alien & Sedition Act -- 1798·         Four bills passed in 1798 by the Federalists   after the XYZ Affair.  Supporters claimed the acts were designed to protect the United States from alien citizens and prevent attacks from weakening the government.  The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions claimed the Alien & Sedition Acts could not be put into action because they were unconstitutional. Aliensimmigrants living in the country who were not citizensSeditionacts maimed at weakening the government  Election of 1800Adams was running for a second term in office against his vice-president, Thomas Jefferson.  Jefferson beat Adams (73-65).  However, Aaron Burr (who ran as Jefferson’s Vice-President) had the same number of electoral votes as Jefferson. Burr became Vice-President after the House of Representative decided the deadlocked election. VocabularyCharter – gives the right to organize settlements in an area Joint-stock company – when investors buy stock, or part ownership, in a company in return for a share of future profits Burgess – an elected official of a town or city Columbian Exchange (1492-1650) – the transfer of peoples, animals, plants, and disease between the Old and New Worlds  Plantation – a large farm or estate on which cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugar cane, or the like is grown by workers.  Plantation economy – An economy which is based on agricultural mass production. It relies on the export of cash crops as a source of income. (cotton, tobacco, rice and indigo)  Mercantilism – When a big country (like England) goes around the world and sets up colonies (like the 13 Colonies) to make money off of them. Export – To sell goods to other countries or territories. Import – To buy goods from other countries or territories Smuggling – Trading illegally with other countries or territories       Ohio River Valley – The British attempted to move into French territory near          modern-day Pittsburgh, Pa.  The Native Americans felt it was their land. The French,         British, Native Americans and Colonists all wanted the land.       Iroquois Confederacy – a powerful group of Native American tribes based in New         York       Militia – a group of civilians trained to fight in emergencies (reserves)       Revenue – Incoming money.       Writs of Assistance – Legal documents that allow customs officers to enter any       location to search for smuggled goods.       Resolution – A formal expression of opinion       Effigies – Rag figures representing unpopular people       Boycott – To refuse to buy a product       Minutemen – Colonial militia; said they’d be ready to fight in a minute’s noticePropaganda – A form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude of a community toward some cause or positionLoyalists – Colonists who stayed loyal to the British. Patriots – Colonists determined to fight the British        Voting – A formal expression of the preference for a candidate for public office          or for a proposed resolution of an issue.       Suffrage – The right to vote.       Primary Source – Material that is closest to the person, information, period, or       idea being studied. Example: The Declaration of Independence       Secondary Source – Material that refers to or comments on a Primary Source.                            

      Example: A textbook with information about the Declaration of Independence