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Teacher Resources: Unit 1

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Unit 1 Learning Guide

Nouns Recap!!

Abstract- you can not use your 5 senses  Ex. Kindness is her best quality.

Concrete- you CAN use your 5 senses Ex. The dog went under the tree.

Collective- A group Ex. The class went on a field trip.  The team won the game.

Plural- more than one  Ex. The boy needed help with the baseballs, shoes, and pencils.

Common- Is not specific, not capitalized  Ex. She went to the store.  Ex. boy, man, girl, desk

Possessive- show’s ownership -- Jack’s shirt

Plural—specific and capitalized—Jerry, Mike, Walmart, Georgia

Conjunctions- joins sentences

Coordinating Conjunctions- simple, little conjuctions FANBOYS—for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

Ex. She wanted some bread, milk, and cereal.

Subordinating Conjunction- Comes at the beginning of a “dependent” clause

Common subordinating conjunctions- after, although, because, before, since, until, whenever

Ex.  After he spent time at his grandmother’s house, he rode his bike.

After he spent time at his grandmother’s house—dependent clause—after—subordinating conj.

Correlative Conjunction—Conjunctions combined with other words; they travel in pairs

Ex. Both…And                    Not Only….But Also                         Not…..But           Either…Or

Neither….Nor                    Whether….Or                                    As….As

Ex. Jackson not only reminded her sister about the fair, but also she bought the tickets in advance.

Pronouns- Subject, Object, Indefinite

Subject- takes the place of the “subject “  Ex. She went to the movie.

Object- in the “predicate” and takes the place of an object       Ex. My aunt bought the pen for her.

Indefinite- pronoun that refers to something that is not definite

Ex. Does anybody have a clue?          Ex. Everyone did a great job on the project.

Indefinite Pronouns—all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, each, everyone, everybody, everything, few, many, nobody, none, one, several, some, somebody, someone

Plural Possessive Nouns- plural nouns that show possession

Ex. students’ pencils—means more than one student’s pencils

Cats’ toys—means more than one cat’s toys

 

The students’ pencils were all over the floor.

Interjection- shows emotion or excitement

Ex. Wow!     Ouch!    Yay!

Wow!  That was a fast ball!

Preposition- directional words—remember all the ways a squirrel travels with a bridge

Under, below, in, on, to, underneath, beyond, over, after, from—any many more

Ex. The girl was in the class.

Object of the Preposition—Always the object the prepositional phrase ends with…

(in the class) class is the object of the preposition

Antecedent- The noun that comes before the pronoun, which is being referred to

Ex. Stephanie drove her car to the movies.--- her is the pronoun, Stephanie is the antecedent being referred to.

Adjectives-- describe nouns

Ex. The fall leaves are turning now.---fall describes the leaves

Point of View- 1st or 3rd

1st- Narrator is a character in the story

3rd-Narrator is not a character in the story

Plot- series/sequence of events

Conflict- problem in the story

Internal—conflict with yourself

External—conflict with someone else or society or nature

Setting—place/time period of the story

Short Story—fictional story that is short in length but includes a character(s), setting, plot, and develops rapidly

Novella—Ex. Gold Cadillac—longer than a short story, shorter than a novel

Fables-  A short tale used to teach a moral lesson, often with animals as characters.

Essay---written document that is not a story

Persuasive Letter—tries to convince/persuades someone to do something or go with your opinion or idea

Theme—Main message or lesson that can relate to life

Protagonist---good guy, hero

Antagonist—villain, bad guy who causes problems for the protagonist

Predicate nominative---a noun in the predicate part of the sentence that refers BACK to the subject. It comes after a LINKING verb, and NEVER in a prepositional phrase.

Ex. They were the winners (of the raffle.)

Predicate adjective--- an adjective in the predicate part of the sentence that DESCRIBES the subject. It comes after a LINKING verb, and NEVER in a prepositional phrase.

Ex. My mom was upset (about the outcome) (of the movie.)

Direct Object- Only come after ACTION verbs. Find the subject, then action verb, and ask “what?” If you have an object(noun) that ask what, then you have a d.o. It CAN NOT come in a prepositional phrase.

 

Indirect Object-Only come after ACTION verbs. Comes BEFORE the DIRECT OBJECT. It tells to whom or for whom. You HAVE TO have a direct object to have an indirect object.

Mom bought Sarah the jacket for Christmas.    

jacket—direct object—answers “what” after action verb

Sarah—indirect object—answers “for whom” after action verb

 

Verb Phrase—more than one verb working together

Ex. She should have taken the subway.                 should have taken—verb phrase

Ex. She was driving to the store.                             was driving—verb phrase

 

Transitive/Intransitive Verbs--- transitive means there is a direct object and intransitive means that there is no direct object

Transitive—John gave the movie to them.—movie is the direct object

Intransitive- John went to the store.----- no direct object

If there is NO action verb, it’s automatically INTRANSITIVE---

Ex. There were several people at the concert.—verb were is linking—automatically intransitive

 

Action Verbs---show action—ran, jumped, sprinted, sing, danced

Linking Verbs---verbs that are a state of being—is, are, were, was, has

Ex. The girls are at the store.

Helping Verbs---verbs help out the main verb(most of the time an action) Use the same words as linking verbs, but it comes in front of the main verb.

Ex. The girls are sitting at the store.----are “helps” out sitting(action verb)

 

Complete Subject---who or what the sentence is about     Ex. My sister’s bike rolled down the street.

Complete Predicate---what the subject did      Ex. My sister’s bike rolled down the street.

Simple Subject—simple means look for “one” word in the subject that the sentence is about

Ex. My sister’s bike rolled down the street.----bike is the simple subject

Simple Predicate- the verb

Ex. My sister’s bike rolled down the street.-----rolled is the simple predicate

Adverb--- describes a verb, adjective, or another adverb---some end in –ly

Adverbs tell/answer  when, where, how, to what extent

Ex. Extremely

I slept upstairs on my bed.---tells where

Quickly decide on the meat for the grill.---ends in –ly and tells/answers “how” –how do u decide? “Quickly”

 

 

 

 

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