Unit 1 Learning Guide
Abstract- you can not use your 5 senses Ex. Kindness is her best quality.
Concrete- you CAN use your 5 senses Ex. The dog went under the tree.
Collective- A group Ex. The class went on a field trip. The team won the game.
Plural- more than one Ex. The boy needed help with the baseballs, shoes, and pencils.
Common- Is not specific, not capitalized Ex. She went to the store. Ex. boy, man, girl, desk
Possessive- show’s ownership -- Jack’s shirt
Plural—specific and capitalized—Jerry, Mike, Walmart, Georgia
Conjunctions- joins sentences
Coordinating Conjunctions- simple, little conjuctions FANBOYS—for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
Ex. She wanted some bread, milk, and cereal.
Subordinating Conjunction- Comes at the beginning of a “dependent” clause
Common subordinating conjunctions- after, although, because, before, since, until, whenever
Ex. After he spent time at his grandmother’s house, he rode his bike.
After he spent time at his grandmother’s house—dependent clause—after—subordinating conj.
Correlative Conjunction—Conjunctions combined with other words; they travel in pairs
Ex. Both…And Not Only….But Also Not…..But Either…Or
Neither….Nor Whether….Or As….As
Ex. Jackson not only reminded her sister about the fair, but also she bought the tickets in advance.
Pronouns- Subject, Object, Indefinite
Subject- takes the place of the “subject “ Ex. She went to the movie.
Object- in the “predicate” and takes the place of an object Ex. My aunt bought the pen for her.
Indefinite- pronoun that refers to something that is not definite
Ex. Does anybody have a clue? Ex. Everyone did a great job on the project.
Indefinite Pronouns—all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, each, everyone, everybody, everything, few, many, nobody, none, one, several, some, somebody, someone
Plural Possessive Nouns- plural nouns that show possession
Ex. students’ pencils—means more than one student’s pencils
Cats’ toys—means more than one cat’s toys
The students’ pencils were all over the floor.
Interjection- shows emotion or excitement
Ex. Wow! Ouch! Yay!
Wow! That was a fast ball!
Preposition- directional words—remember all the ways a squirrel travels with a bridge
Under, below, in, on, to, underneath, beyond, over, after, from—any many more
Ex. The girl was in the class.
Object of the Preposition—Always the object the prepositional phrase ends with…
(in the class) class is the object of the preposition
Antecedent- The noun that comes before the pronoun, which is being referred to
Ex. Stephanie drove her car to the movies.--- her is the pronoun, Stephanie is the antecedent being referred to.
Adjectives-- describe nouns
Ex. The fall leaves are turning now.---fall describes the leaves
Point of View- 1st or 3rd
1st- Narrator is a character in the story
3rd-Narrator is not a character in the story
Plot- series/sequence of events
Conflict- problem in the story
Internal—conflict with yourself
External—conflict with someone else or society or nature
Setting—place/time period of the story
Short Story—fictional story that is short in length but includes a character(s), setting, plot, and develops rapidly
Novella—Ex. Gold Cadillac—longer than a short story, shorter than a novel
Fables- A short tale used to teach a moral lesson, often with animals as characters.
Essay---written document that is not a story
Persuasive Letter—tries to convince/persuades someone to do something or go with your opinion or idea
Theme—Main message or lesson that can relate to life
Protagonist---good guy, hero
Antagonist—villain, bad guy who causes problems for the protagonist
Predicate nominative---a noun in the predicate part of the sentence that refers BACK to the subject. It comes after a LINKING verb, and NEVER in a prepositional phrase.
Ex. They were the winners (of the raffle.)
Predicate adjective--- an adjective in the predicate part of the sentence that DESCRIBES the subject. It comes after a LINKING verb, and NEVER in a prepositional phrase.
Ex. My mom was upset (about the outcome) (of the movie.)
Direct Object- Only come after ACTION verbs. Find the subject, then action verb, and ask “what?” If you have an object(noun) that ask what, then you have a d.o. It CAN NOT come in a prepositional phrase.
Indirect Object-Only come after ACTION verbs. Comes BEFORE the DIRECT OBJECT. It tells to whom or for whom. You HAVE TO have a direct object to have an indirect object.
Mom bought Sarah the jacket for Christmas.
jacket—direct object—answers “what” after action verb
Sarah—indirect object—answers “for whom” after action verb
Verb Phrase—more than one verb working together
Ex. She should have taken the subway. should have taken—verb phrase
Ex. She was driving to the store. was driving—verb phrase
Transitive/Intransitive Verbs--- transitive means there is a direct object and intransitive means that there is no direct object
Transitive—John gave the movie to them.—movie is the direct object
Intransitive- John went to the store.----- no direct object
If there is NO action verb, it’s automatically INTRANSITIVE---
Ex. There were several people at the concert.—verb were is linking—automatically intransitive
Action Verbs---show action—ran, jumped, sprinted, sing, danced
Linking Verbs---verbs that are a state of being—is, are, were, was, has
Ex. The girls are at the store.
Helping Verbs---verbs help out the main verb(most of the time an action) Use the same words as linking verbs, but it comes in front of the main verb.
Ex. The girls are sitting at the store.----are “helps” out sitting(action verb)
Complete Subject---who or what the sentence is about Ex. My sister’s bike rolled down the street.
Complete Predicate---what the subject did Ex. My sister’s bike rolled down the street.
Simple Subject—simple means look for “one” word in the subject that the sentence is about
Ex. My sister’s bike rolled down the street.----bike is the simple subject
Simple Predicate- the verb
Ex. My sister’s bike rolled down the street.-----rolled is the simple predicate
Adverb--- describes a verb, adjective, or another adverb---some end in –ly
Adverbs tell/answer when, where, how, to what extent
I slept upstairs on my bed.---tells where
Quickly decide on the meat for the grill.---ends in –ly and tells/answers “how” –how do u decide? “Quickly”