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Writing Lesson Outline

Lessons:

Paraphrasing

Many people find it difficult to write things in their own words , so they copy other person’s published articles and ideas from the book , internet and other source.
Copying the published materials of other people with the same sentences and words without permission is WRONG and  illegal.
 
To paraphrase is to write articles of other people in your own words without changing its meaning. It is your explanation or interpretation of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else.
 
Diction
     Formal
     Concise
     Specific
     Direct
     Overemphasized

Type of Sentences

Effective Sentence
      Unity
      Conciseness
      Coherence
      Variety
      Emphasis
 
Common Mistakes in Writing Sentences
      Sentence Fragment
      Run-on Sentence
      Comma Splice
      Parallelism
      Dangling Modifiers
      Misplaced Modifiers
 
Effective Paragraph
      Topic Sentence
      Unity
      Coherence
 
Paragraph Development
 
       Definition
 
Two ways of writing definition:
  1. Simple Definition 
  2. Extended Definition
Definition is the most fundamental way of developing and analyzing ideas.
When you write a “Definition Essay” , you have to understand the term before you can define it for others.

Simple Definition

word/term + verb + general class + details [“wh”-word + particular characteristics ]
 
An economist is a person who studies the way in which a country’s wealth is made and used.
Psychology may be defined as the scientific study of the way the human mind works and how it influences behavior.
 
Try this!
1. pollution
2. park
3. writing
4. family
5. language
 

Extended Definition

Sometimes the word you wish to define is so complex or abstract that it is impossible to define it satisfactorily in a simple sentence.
 
“Extended Definition” helps to explain a complex term or inform rather than describe. Thus, it is vital for the success of a paper/essay , a report or an article.. ..etc.
 
(Simple Definition )Things to be defined + verb + general class word + details [“wh”-word + particular characteristics ]
 
+ other information or more specific – you can describe , give examples , facts , reports , etc.
 
A Uniform Resource Locator, commonly called a URL, is an addressing system which is used to identify sites on the Internet. A URL consists of four separate parts that together define the location of any file. The parts are the protocol, domain name, path, and filename.
 
 
Follow the OUTLINE below when writing DEFINITION ESSAY
 
Choose one topic below and write
 
Life , silence , freedom , hope , truth , social injustice ,hero , time management , stress , ideal student ,beauty , internet addiction , smoking addiction, peace , happiness , knowledge
 
 Paragraph 1. Introduction: 
A. Simple Definition: Love is a complex emotional feeling that is misunderstood by many
B. Standard definition by dictionary: From Webster dictionary: Love is a strong positive emotion of regard and affection
C. Other people’s definition (famous people): It is the feeling you get when you know that someone you feel you cannot live without will always be there for you unconditionally
D. Other definition (if available—example definition of your friend, colleague, parents and so on): Love is like making a cake; it won't work unless all of the ingredients are included and the directions followed.
E. Thesis Statement: To understand love, it’s necessary to know the major types of love: platonic love, romantic love and unconditional love.
A, B, C, E are most important in definition essay. As for D , it’s just an optional/not necessary definition, you can only add if you think it’s interesting.
Example Paragraph 1: topic is LOVE
(A) Love is a complex emotional feeling that is misunderstood by many. It is a hard word to define in short terms. According to (B) Webster's definition love is "A deep and tender feeling of attraction for or attachment to a person, a feeling of brotherhood and good will toward others." (C) For other people, love is the feeling you get when you know that someone you feel you cannot live without will always be there for you unconditionally. (D) For me, love is like making a cake; it won't work unless all of the ingredients are included and the directions followed. (E) In order to understand love, we need to understand the three major types of love: platonic love , romantic love and unconditional love.
                                                                              Always remember ( less important to most important)
 
  Paragraph 2.  Topic Sentence 1.The first type of love is...
                                                                   Expanded details
       
  Paragraph 3. Topic Sentence  2.The second type of love is...
                                                                  Expanded details
 
  Paragraph 4. Topic Sentence 3. The third type of love is...
                                                                 Expanded details
 
   Paragraph 5. Conclusion:
 
 
 
Patterns in writing the body of a definition essay.
 
By Classification/Analysis: divide subjects into types, describe each type Example topic: love—classify into different types-- platonic love, romantic love, unrequited love and first love.
 
By Comparison: show how subject is like or unlike
example: communism—you can compare it with capitalism , socialism , or democracy
 
By Illustration: give examples or narrate incidents/events
Examples: especially for a very abstract word—giving examples may make it clearer.
 
By telling causes—analyze why something happened.
Example topic: pollution , global warming
 
By showing effects/results—describe the consequences or outcomes
Example topic: poverty --- you can describe the effects to human health—physically and mentally.
 
 
Below is an example:  TOPIC: LOVE
 
You can use Classification Pattern
 
.... And write the main points or supporting sentences /topic sentences this way.
 
The first type of love is…
The second type of love is…
The third type of love is…
 


 
Classification is one of the most useful methods for explaining an object or idea.
Classification means breaking down a general subject into several categories  according to one principle of selection
 
Example: You will go shopping and you will buy milk, butter, potatoes, bananas, tomato sauce and so on.
 
How will you classify the things you’ll buy to avoid going around the supermarket?
 
You should classify it this way in order to save you time when shopping.
Dairy products: milk , butter, cheese
Produce: potatoes, bananas, oranges
Canned goods: tomatoe sauce, sardines, corn syrup
 
Classification examples in your book:
  1. There are two types of school: primary and secondary.Primary schools cater for children aged 7-12, and secondary schools for ages 12-17.
  2. The historical objects and materials can be divided into four broad categories: archaeology, local historyethnography and natural history.
There are three kinds of book owners. The first has all the standard sets and best-sellers --unread, untouched. (This deluded individual owns woodpulp and ink, not books.) The second has a great many books-- a few of them read through, most of them dipped into, but all of them as clean and shiny as the day they were bought. (This person would probably like to make books his own, but is restrained by a false respect for their physical appearance.) The third has a few books or many -- every one of them dog-eared and dilapidated, shaken and loosened by continual use, marked and scribbled in from front to back. (This man owns books.)  Mortimer J. Adler
 
How are the book owners classified in this paragraph ?
 
The author divides book owners into three main types and describes each of them briefly .
  • Those who do not read their books
  • Those who read carelessly short parts of their books.
  • Those who read closely and carefully everyone of their books.

Using classification, we create order out of confusion and provide a clear overview of information.
 
TRY THIS!
1. How do we classify apples?
2. How do we classify sports ?
3. Read the following words and divide them into groups .What are the category of the words below.
forest 
cave 
management 
palace 
temple 
monument 
museum
driver 
soldier 
beach 
interview 
mountain 
manager 
assistant 
conductor 
business 
production 
negotiation 
lake 
pagoda
 
 
Writing the THESIS STATEMENT
The THESIS STATEMENT should indicate the criterion of category and the number of smaller groups into which a topic group is divided or separated.
 
example:
 
1.There are different kinds of people in the society. wrong/error --no number
2. There are three kinds of people in the society.
3. The people in the society are divided into three categories.
4. Any good library should contain three basic types of materials.
5. The TV shows can be classified into three kinds.
6. The beer drinkers can be grouped into two types.
7. The feeling of love can be divided into three kinds such as parental devotion, friendship, and romantic appeal.
    The feeling of love can be divided into parental devotion , friendship and romantic love.
 
Common Words used for classifcation
 
Verbs:
Fall…into              
Divide…into        
Group….into         
Sort…into   
 
Nouns:
class 
category
group
sort
kind
label
type
 

USE A CHART TO PUT YOUR IDEAS INORDER, see example below

Students
Category & class
Excellent  Student
 
Average Student
 take what comes 
student

 

“Is this going to
be on the Test”
Student
 

 

attendance
Seldom misses , seldom late
 
misses occasionaly ,late some of the time
 
Complain about strict attendance policy
 
Is confident that the policy is only a bluff
 
attittude
Accepts criticism,eager to learn
 
Interested but not at the level of interest in major courses
 
Cool or aloof,sometimes hard to tell if listening
 
This is a required course,don’t weigh me down
 
attention
Done on time and with care on details
 
Occasionally rushed but usually done with care
 
They might not get done if there’s a hot  party
 
They might not be a high priority
 
 

 

Example 1
Let’s create a thesis statement:
1. There are three factors to test a college student performance.
2. The criteria to test a college student is divided into three categories.
3. The categories to test a college student are: attendance , attitude , and attention.
 
 
Paragraph 1. I.Introduction: at least 3 sentences
Lead in-- write an interesting sentence
Transition
Thesis Statement
Paragraph 2. Attendance ( write a topic sentence)
a. excellent
b. average
c. take what comes
d. is this going to be on the test
Paragraph 3.Attitude ( write a topic sentence)
a. excellent
b. average
c. take what comes
d. is this going to be on the test
Paragraph 4.attention ( write a topic sentence)
a. excellent
b. average
c. take what comes
d. is this going to be on the test
Paragraph 5. Conclusion
Example 2
Let’s create a thesis statement:
1. There are four categories of college students.
2. College students are divided into four categories.
3. The four types of college students are excellent , average , “take what comes”  , “Is this going to be on the Test”.
4. The four major categories of college students are over achievers , achievers , average achievers underachievers.
 
Let’s create a topic sentence for excellent student category.
1.The excellent student sees that regular attendance is important.
2. The attitude of the excellent student sets her apart from the rest.
3. When it comes to paying attention , the excellent student knows that knowledge comes from involvement.
 
 
Paragraph 1. I.Introduction: at least 3 sentences
Lead in-- write an interesting sentence
Transition
Thesis Statement
Paragraph 2. Excellent student ( write a topic sentence)
a. attendance
b. attittude
c. attention
Paragraph 3.take what comes students ( write a topic sentence)
a. attendance
b. attittude
c. attention
Paragraph 4.is this going to be on the test student ( write a topic sentence)
a. attendance
b. attittude
c. attention
Paragraph 5. Conclusion
 
 
Another example: Topic---LOSING WEIGHT
 
losing weight category diet exercise medicine
process
requires discipline in 
eating healthy foods
requires discipline
in doing daily exercise
requires daily dosage of medicines
effect
-muscles not strong
-healthy heart and brain
-muscles strong
-relax and balance body systtem
-potential side effects
cost
cheapest
reasonable
expensive
 
I. Introduction
II. Diet
a.process
b.effect
c.cost
III. exercise
a.process
b.effect
c.cost
IV. cost
a.process
b.effect
c.cost
V. Conclusion
I. Introduction
II. Process
a.diet
b.exercise
c. medicine
III.effect
a.diet
b.exercise
c. edicine
IV. exercise
a.diet
b.exercise
c. edicine
V. Conclusion
 


 
       Exemplification
       Cause and Effect
       Comparison and Contrast
 
Writing CV /resume
 



Answers: 

1. How do we classify apples?
- by size
- color
-price
-locale of growth
 
2. How do we classify sports ?
-track and field
-swimming
-ball games
 
3.
ACTIVITY: business , management , negotiation , interview, production
LANDSCAPE: forest , lake, mountains, beach , cave
STRUCTURE: structure , temple , pagoda , monument , museum
OCCUPATION: soldier , driver ,conductor , manager
 

 

 

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