8th Grade "Through the Eyes of the Constitution"

8th Grade American History

St. Therese Catholic School

Mr. Bro


8th Grade History / Unit 1 Pre-Test Questions

Instructions:  Make sure you have completed all the reading, reading questions, complete the reviews watch the films and answer the film questions for Unit 1 – Section 1 and then you will be ready to take the exam.  Below are all the questions and some of the notes for Unit 1.   The films below will opened by clicking on the link for each film.  For the Hippocampus reading, copy and paste the reading link into your browser to open the reading assignment, or   1. Go to Hippocampus.org    2. Click on the American Government Tab     3. Click on the assigned reading tab


Hippocampus – Nature of government Reading Questions


http://www.hippocampus.org/course_locator?course=American Government&lesson=1&topic=1&width=800&height=684&topicTitle=The%20Nature%20of%20Governments&skinPath=http://www.hippocampus.org/hippocampus.skins/default



1. _______________________ consists of the institutions that make and enact policies to govern people within a society or nation.

2. What three branches make up the United States government?

3. (t-f) Governments are designed to protect citizens, organize armed forces, and develop weapons and to make strategic alliances with other countries.

4. (t-f) One of government’s purposes is to maintain order in society by enforcing laws, preventing crime, and responding to emergency situations.

5. (t-f) Regulating the economy is an important government function.

6. The _________________ is one government agency that plays a major role in regulating the U.S. economy by to setting interest rates; it implements U.S. monetary policy and makes sure banks are honest and fair in their dealings with consumers.

7. Which is not an example of public goods?

a. Schools b. Highways and libraries c. Wal-Mart

8. (t-f) Medicare, federal education loans, and welfare are all public services that are available to people who qualify for them based on need.

9. (t-f) Government’s goal of socialization is to encourage youths to accept, understand, and perpetuate the government. In the United States, many children begin their school day by reciting the Pledge of Allegiance, and the curricula for most schools require students to take U.S. government.

10. (t-f) In order for a government to function effectively, children and young adults need to know how their government works and how they can participate in it.

11. What are government‘s Six Essential needs of a society?

12. What two organizations operate the federal tax system in the United States?

13. What U.S. state does not have state income tax?

14. What four characteristics mark the existence of a nation state?

15. (t-f) A nation state's territory must have defined borders that are recognized by other nations.

16. (t-f) A people can have a government but lack an independent territory to make it legitimate.

17. To be sovereign, a nation state must have the authority to govern its territory and population without _______________ from other nations.

18. For a nation state's government to qualify as legitimate, its population and other nations must ___________________________ its authority.

19. Which U.S. President in in 1979 changed the United States’ foreign policy to agree with the U.N. by recognizing the People's Republic of China as the legitimate government? 20. What are the five types of government found throughout history?

21. What are the two main types of democracy?

22. What type of democracy is the oldest in which people being governed gather to discuss and vote directly on decisions made by the government?

23. What type of democracy is it when people elect representatives to run the government and express their sentiments?


Hippocampus - Theories of Democracy Reading Questions


http://www.hippocampus.org/course_locator?course=American Government&lesson=1&topic=2&width=800&height=684&topicTitle=Theories%20of%20Democracy&skinPath=http://www.hippocampus.org/hippocampus.skins/default


1. Who defined democracy as “government of the people, by the people and for the people”?

2. What theory of democracy promotes majority rule without violating minority rights, maintaining the willingness to compromise, and recognizing the worth and dignity of all people.

3. (t-f) Under the Traditional Theory, everyone has the right to participate in government.

4. What theory of democracy holds that people with common interests form organized groups to promote their causes and influence the political agenda?

5. What theory of democracy maintains that the majority of political power and influence is held by a small number of individuals, groups, and industries?

6. Who was the President in his farewell address who warned against the possible problems created by the "military-industrial complex?

7. What theory of democracy suggests that people who share interests form groups to advance their causes wield too much power and influence on the government?

8. (t-f) Although quite different, all four theories of democracy share a common idea: people, either as individuals or groups, can make a difference in government.


Hippocampus - The Policy-Making Cycle Reading Questions


http://www.hippocampus.org/course_locator?course=American Government&lesson=1&topic=3&width=800&height=684&topicTitle=The%20Policy-Making%20Cycle&skinPath=http://www.hippocampus.org/hippocampus.skins/default


1. What is the process by which people learn and form opinions about government and politics?

2. Where does Political socialization begin?

3. (t-f) Schools, the media and the entertainment industry are involved in political socialization.

4. (t-f) When people vote and participate in government and politics, they promote government "by the people" and strengthen the government's ability to function "for the people."

5. What is the first step that is taken before a policy is passed?

6. What is the second step that is taken before a policy is passed?

7. What groups make up linkage institutions?

8. What is a “policy agenda:”?

9. What are some policy-making institutions?

10. .What is Government agencies collectively referred to as?

11. After policy makers decide which issues to address, they enact a plan, and the plan becomes ___________________policy.

12. (t-f) The checks and balances in the United States government typically mean that two or more policy-making institutions are involved in creating and implementing the new policies.

13. (t-f) The IRS can set regulations on how the funds are to be refunded, and any challenges by the people concerning the policy can be heard in the Courts.

14. What is the last step of the policy making cycle?


HippoCampus – English Document and Democracy Reading Questions


http://www.hippocampus.org/course_locator?course=American Government&lesson=2&topic=1&width=800&height=684&topicTitle=English%20Documents%20and%20Democracy&skinPath=http://www.hippocampus.org/hippocampus.skins/default


1. Where did Democracy largely have its origins because people grew tired of life under monarchical rule?

2. (t-f) In the History of Great Britain, not all monarchs were tyrants, but many of them were greedy and ruthless, taxing their people heavily and punishing them harshly, sometimes without cause which resulted in the people longing for more control over their lives.

3. Which famous English document outlined restrictions on the king's power and granted certain rights to the barons in 1215?

4. What two significant steps toward democracy did the Magna Carta make?

5. (t-f) The monarchs who succeeded King John did not always abide by the rules set forth in the Magna Carta.

6. What famous English document barred the king from such acts as arresting or punishing people without cause and adopted the conviction that a king’s power was not God-given and insisted that monarch are subject to the same laws as everyone else and have to answer for their crimes?

7. What did English Parliament pass in 1689 that attempted to end the abuses of the king?

8. (t-f) The English Bill of Rights monarchs could not keep a standing army during peacetime and could not change or abolish laws and also provided that people had the right to petition the king without fear of reprisal and the right to a fair trial.

9. What three English documents helped shape democracy in the United States Constitution?


HippoCampus - Enlightenment Political Philosophies Reading Questions


http://www.hippocampus.org/course_locator?course=American Government&lesson=2&topic=2&width=800&height=684&topicTitle=Enlightenment%20Political%20Philosophies&skinPath=http://www.hippocampus.org/hippocampus.skins/default


1. What was the name of the important period from 1650-1800 that was an important period in the development of democracy that established the idea that the natural world is best understood through close observation and reason?

2. (t-f) The Age of Reason examined human behavior in the context of nature and society.

3. Who was the well-known Enlightenment philosopher who wrote Leviatahn which described his belief that in nature, people would be in a constant state of conflict and insecurity, looking out only for themselves and their interests?

4. Who was the well-known Enlightenment philosopher who wrote Two Treatises of Government where he rejected the claim that kings and queens had a divine right to rule?

5. Who was the English philosopher who argued that the government must act for the good of everyone and that people had the right to rebel if it failed to protect their "self-evident" natural rights of life, liberty, and property?

6. (t-f) The English "right of rebellion" theory had a strong influence on American Patriots eager for independence from England.

7. Who was the English philosopher who held that people have certain natural or "self-evident" rights, such as life, liberty, and property, which the government must respect?

8. (t-f) John Locke proposed that government should be divided into different branches, each branch having only the power needed to fulfill its function.

9. (t-f) The English philosopher John Locke's ideas about limited, democratic government, the right to rebel, and the opportunity to pursue natural rights clearly influenced Jefferson then and continue to influence government workings today.

10. Who was the French political philosopher who echoed Locke's assertion that government should act for the good of all people.


11. Who was the French philosopher who believed the people could retain their freedom within the workings of democracy and promoted the idea that people must participate in society if they want to share in its benefits?


Government Slide Show Questions – PDF File that will be attached to this email


1. (t-f) The Greek philosopher Aristotle was one of the first to study government.

2. A state consisting of a city and the surrounding countryside during the times of ancient Greece was called a ____________________.

3. (t-f) The Romans gave us many terms and concepts of government such as politics, democracy, and republic. (False - Greeks)

4. What Latin word means "To stand"?

5. A ____________________ is a political community that occupies a definite territory and has an organized government with the power to make and enforce laws without approval from any higher authority.

6. The term ______________________________ commonly refers to an independent state or country.

7. A ______________________ is a group of people united by bonds of race, language, custom, tradition and sometimes religion.

8. A _______________________ is a country in which both the nation and the state coincide.

9. What four essential features do States share?

10. (t-f) Mobility of people affects political power.

11. What means that the state has the supreme and absolute authority within its territorial boundaries?

12. What institution maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces decisions that are binding on all people living within the state?

13. Which English King was forced to sign the Magna Carta in 1215?

14. The right that allows appeal against unlawful imprisonment is called ___________.

15. What theory states that one person or a small group can claim and control over an area and forced all within it to submit to that person's or group's rule?

16 What doctrine states the right of rules in a monarch (one ruler) is developed directly from God and is only accountable to God because God created the state?

17. What English Petition asserted four principles: no taxes may be levied without consent of Parliament; no subject may be imprisoned without cause shown habeas; no soldiers may be quartered upon the citizenry; martial law may not be used in time of peace?

18. (t-f) The English Bill of Rights names certain rights to which subjects and permanent residents of a constitutional monarchy were thought to be entitled.

20. (t-f) Tomas Hobbes was one of the first to theorize on the social contract.

21. What type of contract states that all individuals in a society will give up their natural rights for the sake of protection?

22. Who was the English philosopher who believed that people were endowed with the right of life, liberty, and property?

23. (t-f) John Locke influenced the American Declaration of Independence.

24. What was the name of the essay written by John Locke that stated that People need government to keep social order because they have not figured out a way to live in groups without conflict?

25. What was the name of the book anonymously published that stressed the separation of powers, the abolition of slavery, the preservation of civil liberties, the rule of law and the idea that politics and laws should reflect the social and geographical character of each particular community?

26. What are the four purposes of government?

27. _____________________ is the willingness of citizens to obey the government.

28. ___________________ comes from the police, judicial, and military institutions of government.

29. A _________________ system gives all key powers to the national or central government and the central government can still set up other local or state governments.

30. A loose union of independent states is called?

31. What are the three major purposes of a Constitution?

32. (t-f) A constitutional government refers to a government in which a constitution has authority to place clearly recognized limits on the power of those who govern.

33. What are the two major political parties in the United States?

34. What kind of nations are large nations with large industries and advanced technology that provides a more comfortable way of life than developing nations?

35. What type of nation has an economy that relies on a few export crops, farming is conducted by primitive methods and, rapid population growth threatens the supply of food?

36. (t-f) Most developing nations are in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

37. What three major groups do governments fall under?

38. What type has a king, queen, or emperor that exercises the supreme power of government?

39. What kind of monarchs has complete and unlimited power to rule?

40. What type of monarchs share power with elected legislatures and serve as ceremonial leaders?

41. What type of government is a system of government in which a small group holds power?

42. (t-f) Democracy is any system of government in which rule is by the people.

43. A _____________ party is a group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, and determine public policy.

44. What economic system provides free choice and individual incentive for workers, investors, consumers, and business enterprises?

45. What kind of economic system has buyers and sellers make free choices in the marketplace?

46. What means “to let alone” – government should keep its hands off the economy?

47. What economic system has the government own the basic means of production, distributes products and wages, and provides social services such as health care and welfare?

48. Whose ideas began the Communist form of government?

49. Who wrote the book "The Communist Manifesto"?

50. (t-f) Marx argued that capitalism will inevitably produce internal tensions which will lead to its destruction.

51. What political and economic philosophy believes that one class would evolve, property would be held in common, and there would be no need for government?


Enlightenment Film Questions – Click on Film Links to watch the film

Part 1 : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ggwLopezrTc

Part 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IYkYGnHFXC8&feature=related


1. What is the Enlightenment Period also called?

2. (t-f) The Enlightenment is known for its focus on humanism.

3. (t-f) The Enlightenment Period was driven by common people with uncommon ideas.

4. (t-f) Eighteenth century philosophers tried to be well rounded in many aspects of learning.

5. (t-f) The Enlightenment only occurred in England.

6. Who were three philosophers in the United States during the Enlightenment Period?

7. (t-f) The ideas of philosophers were considered radical during the Enlightenment.

8. (t-f) The idea of happiness as mentioned in the Declaration of Independence is an idea of the Enlightenment Period.

9. (t-f) The idea of the betterment of science was a new idea introduced during the Enlightenment.

10. (t-f) The idea of using “reason” was a fundamental idea of the Enlightenment Period.

11. Who was the Enlightenment philosopher who taught not to beat your children to try to get them to learn?

12. (t-f) The ideas of “separation of Church & State and freedom of speech were introduced by the philosophers of the Enlightenment.

13. (t-f) Religious intolerance has led to much bloodshed in history.

14. (t-f) Religious toleration is a fundamental idea of the Enlightenment.

15. (t-f) Some Enlightenment philosophers believed in atheism.

16. (t-f) The ideas of creating encyclopedias were started by philosophers of the Enlightenment.

17. Who was the philosopher who was a devout believer who put tighter mathematical laws during the Enlightenment?

18. Who was the philosopher who had the idea that science should serve humanity and shape human life?

19. (t-f) Physiocrats tried to explain economic law and were 18th century economists.

20. (t-f) The ideas of the Enlightenment never came to America.

21. (t-f) Some believe that the American Revolution would not have happened without the ideas of the Enlightenment.

22. Who was the author of the Declaration is a perfect representative of the Enlightenment?

23. Who was the American Enlightenment thinker who was a printer, statesmen, scientist, politician and inventor?

24. What do some historians believe ended the Enlightenment Period?

25. (t-f) We are allowed to pursue happiness as long as we do not interfere with another person’s right to happiness.