In science we are currently studying the Digestive, Circulatory, and Nervous Systems
1. How does the digestive system work?
- The digestive system changes food into nutrients that body cells use for energy, for growth and repair, and for working well.
- Food is broken down and chemically changed as it moves from the mouth through the esophagus to the stomach and small intestine.
2. How does the circulatory system work?
- The parts of blood are plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, and each part does a different job.
- The three kinds of blood vessels are arteries, capillaries, and veins, and each does a different job.
- Blood moves through each side of the heart in one direction, from the right atrium to the right ventricle and from the left atrium to the left ventricle.
3. How does the brain get information?
- Nerve cells are the basic units of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
- Nerve cells in the skin gather information about touch, pressure, heat, cold, and pain and send messages to the brain.
- Nerve cells in the eyes gather information about light and send messages to the brain.
- Nerve cells in the tongue and nose gather information about taste and smell and send messages to the brain.
Chapter 1D Vocabulary
Nutrient a substance in food that the body uses for energy, for growth and repair, or for working well
Digestion the changing of food into forms that the body can use
Saliva the liquid in the mouth that makes chewed food wet and begins digestion
Enzyme a chemical that helps your digestive system change food into nutrients
Esophagus the tube that carries food and liquids from the mouth to the stomach
Small Intestine the organ of the digestive system in which most digestion takes place
Plasma the watery part of blood that carries nutrients, wastes, and blood cells
Red blood cell the kind of blood cell that carries oxygen to other body cells
White blood cell the kind of blood cell that fights germs
Platelet a tiny part of a cell that helps stop bleeding
Artery the kind of blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
Capillary a tiny blood vessel with thin walls through which oxygen, nutrients, and water pass
Vein the kind of blood vessel tat carries blood back to the heart
Atrium one of two spaces in the top part of the heart that receive blood from veins
Ventricle one of two spaces in the bottom part of the heart that pump blood out of the heart
Sense organ a body part that has special nerve cells that gather information about the surroundings
Nerve cell a cell that gathers and carries information in the body
Nerve ending a tiny branch of a nerve cell that gathers information
Spinal cord a think bundle of nerves that connects the brain and nerves throughout the body.