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Science--Chapter 3A

Chapter 3A

Energy in Ecosystems

 

1. What is an ecosystem?

Plants and animals are living parts of an ecosystem. Rocks, soil, water, and sunlight are nonliving parts of an ecosystem.

Habitats provide food, water, and shelter for survival.

2.  How do plants get energy?

Plants use their leaves to trap sunlight and to let air in and out. Plants get water from the soil through their roots.

Plants use carbon dioxide, water, and light from energy to produce sugar.

3.  How do other living thigns get energy?

Consumers get the energy they need by eating plants and animals.

Scavengers are animals that eat dead animals. Decomposers break down dead plants and animals and put minerals and nutrients back into the soil, air, and water.

4.  What are food chains and food webs?

Energy is passed from one organism to another through a food chain.

Many food chains make up a food web.

Changes in the environment, such as flooding, storms, fires, using pesticides, overfishing, deforestation, or pollution, can affect food webs.

 

Vocabulary

ecosystem          all the living and nonliving things in an environment and how they interact

habitat                a place where an animal or plant lives

chlorophyll         the green substance found in plants that traps energy from the sun and gives plants their green color

carbon dioxide   a gas found in air

photosynthesis  a process by which plants change light energy from the sun and use it to make sugar

producer             a living thing that uses sunlight to make sugar

consumer          a living thing that gets energy by eating plants and other animals

herbivore           a  consumer that eats plants

carnivore           a consumer that eats other consumers

omnivore           a consumer that eats both plants and other consumers

scavenger         an animal that eats dead animals

decomposer      a consumer that puts materials from dead plants and animals back into the soil, air, and water

food chain          the flow of energy through a community

predator            an animal that hunts and kills other animals for food

prey                 the animals that predators hunt

food web         all the food chains in a community

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