Class Notes

Sentence Structure and Clauses A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and its verb.  An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence, thus it expresses a complete thought.  A subordinate clause cannot stand alone because it does not express a complete thought, thus it does not make sense.                                                                      S                     LVIndependent clause:  Several kinds of bees are social creatures.                                                                                                   S         VSubordinate clause:  Although many bee species make solitary nests. 
Subordinating conjunctions:After, although, as, as if, as though, because, before, even though, if, in order that, provided, since, so that, than, unless, until, when, where, whereas, while 
 The structure of a sentence is determined by the number and kind of clauses it contains.  There are four sentence structures: simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex.   Simple sentence:  an independent clause that stands alone.                                                                 S         V                                                                                 Bees depend only on flowers. Compound sentence:  contains two or more independent clauses separated by a semicolon (;); by a semicolon, conjunctive adverb, and comma (; however,); or by a comma followed by a coordinating conjunction (,for).   
Coordinating conjunctions:for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (F.A.N.B.O.Y.S.)
Conjunctive Adverbs:Accordingly, also, besides, consequently, finally, furthermore, hence, however, instead, nevertheless, otherwise, similarly, still, therefore, thus
                                                                  S      V                                        S     HV      V      Semicolon:                   Bees live on pollen and nectar; they may convert the nectar to honey.                                                                    S      V                                                            S         V         Conjunctive Adverb:                  Bees have a bad reputation; therefore, most people avoid                                                                 them.                                                                      S        V                                                   S                   VCoordinating Conjunction:                 Bees obtain food from flowers, but wasps usually eat small insects. Hint:  Do not confuse compound sentences with simples sentences that have compound subjects or predicates.   Compound Subject:  All ants and some bees are social insects.Compound Predicate:  Social insects nest together and divide labor.                      Complex sentence:  contains one independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses.   In the following sentences, the subordinate clause is in bold type.  Notice that a subordinate clause my interrupt a main clause.                                                                       S                           S              V      V                                                                Honeybees, which beekeepers raise, live mainly in human-madehives.                                                                                                                                                                S      LV                         S           LV                                                                Although their honey is valuable, honeybees are even more valuable                                                                 as pollinators.                                                                      S                                  V                      S        V                                                                They inadvertently spread pollen as they move from flower to flower.   Note:  the relative pronoun that begins some subordinate clauses may be the subject of the clause.                                                                       S        S      V                                        V                                                                Farmers who need crop pollination often use honeybees.   
Relative pronouns:  that, which, who, whom, and


  Compound-Complex Sentence:  contains at least one subordinate clause and at least two independent clauses.                                                                                      S           V                        S           V                                                                When a honeybee finds flowers, it communicates in a kind of dance,                                                                                 S      V                                                                and fellow bees learn the location of the tasty treats.