Unit 5 Part 2A Notes: Anatomy and Physiology of the Brain

Unit 5 Part 2A

Anatomy and Physiology of theBrain





 I.       Lobes of the Brain


a.       Frontal Lobe

b.      Parietal Lobes

c.       Temporal Lobes

d.      Occipital Lobe


 II.    Meninges  

a.       Membrane that protects the Brain

b.      Contains the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)

                                                               i.      Fluid contains glucose, salts, and WBC’s

c.       Made up of three layers

                                                               i.      Duramater – tough outer layer

                                                             ii.      Arachnoid Membrane – middle, mesh-like layer -- sub-arachnoid spaces contain CSF

                                                            iii.      Pia Mater – soft, inner layer


d.  Meningitis


Inflammatory disease of the membrane surrounding the brain
Viral or bacterial
Symptoms of meningitis include sudden fever, headache, vomiting, heightened sensitivity to light, stiff neck and back, confusion and impaired judgment, drowsiness, weak muscles, a clumsy and unsteady gait, and irritability.
Antibiotics may be prescribed for bacterial infections. Anticonvulsants are used to prevent or treat seizures. Corticosteroids are used to reduce brain swelling and inflammation.
Prognosis for meningitis varies. Some cases are mild, short and relatively benign and individuals have full recovery. Other cases are severe, and permanent impairment or death is possible


 III. Cerebrum


a.       Separated into two hemispheres by the longitudinal cerebral fissure

                                                               i.      Right Cerebral Hemisphere

1.      Creativity; imagination; personality

2.      Sensory and motor neurons that control the left half of the body

                                                             ii.      Left Cerebral Hemisphere

1.      Logical thinking, personality

2.      Sensory and motor neurons to the right half of the body


 "Problems with the brain and Consequences"



 IV.  Sulci and Gyri


a.       Sulci – grooves of the cerebrum

b.      Gyri – raised areas of the cerebrum


 V.     Cerebellum


a.       Back of the Brain

b.      Superior to the Medulla Oblongata

c.       “Computer Center” of the brain

                                                               i.      Sensory perception and motor output

1.      Connected to motor cortex to control muscle movement

                                                             ii.      Controls:  equilibrium, posture, and motor learning (co-ordination)


 VI.  Medulla Oblongata

a.       Back of the brain

b.      Inferior to Cerebellum and caudal to the pons

c.       Controls autonomic functions and relays nerve signals between the brain and spinal cord.

                                                               i.      Responsible for controlling several major autonomic functions of the body; respiration, blood pressure, heart rate, swallowing reflex and reflex arcs.

 VII.           Pons

a.       Located on the brain stem

b.      Anterior to the cerebellum

c.       Function:  relay information between the Cerebrum and the Cerebellum

d.      May have a relation to dreaming


 VIII.        Hypothalamus

a.       Located Below the Thalamus

b.      Function:  Link between the neural and endocrine systems.

                                                               i.      Regulates psychological state of body

                                                             ii.      Maintains homeostasis

                                                            iii.      Responds to thirst and hunger stimuli

 IX.  Thalamus

a.       Located Above the Hypothalamus

b.      Sensory integration of all parts of the nervous system to the cerebrum

 X.     Corpus Collosum

a.       Located above the Thalamus

b.      White nervous tissue that connects the two cerebral hemispheres

c.       Function:  Communication b/n the right and left cerebrum

 XI.  Stroke -- Cerebro-vascular accident (CVA)

a.       Three Types of Strokes

Cerebral Hemmorage -- When a blood vessel bursts and bleeding occurs in the cerebral cortex

Embolic Stroke -- Clots form elsewhere in the circulatory system and occlude in cerebral arteries, cutting off the blood supply to areas of the brain

Ischemic Stroke -- A narrowing of blood vessels occur, cutting off the oxygen supply to certain portions of the cerebral cortex


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M_fo6ytlmD0  -- Stroke Animation at YouTube

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=43CkXqOEFvI&feature=related -- Three Types of Stroke Animation at YouTube

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1lVhCYp6Ad4 -- Symptoms of person suffering a stroke (British version --- In the US call 911)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T_CXqfFGpvY -- Transient Ischemic Attacks or "Mini Strokes" and Stroke information